# Which organisms would be at the bottom of the energy pyramid for this ecosystem Brainly?

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## Which organisms would be at the bottom of the energy pyramid for this ecosystem Brainly?

Answer: Plants or other photosynthetic organisms (autotrophs) are found on the first trophic level, at the bottom of the pyramid. The next level will be the herbivores, and then the carnivores that eat the herbivores. The energy pyramid (Figure below) shows four levels of a food chain, from producers to carnivores.

## What is a trophic level what does it represent in an ecological pyramid?

Trophic level and its representation in an ecological pyramid: Trophic level means the class of living things which involve same position in food chain. At the base of an ecological pyramid is trophic level 1. The trophic levels 4 or 5 are employed by carnivores or apex predators.

## What is the success/failure condition in statistics?

The success/failure condition gives us the answer: Success/Failure Condition: if we have 5 or more successes in a binomial experiment (n*p ≥ 10) and 5 or more failures (n*q ≥ 10), then you can use a normal distribution to approximate a binomial (some texts put this figure at 10).

## What is the randomization condition?

Randomization in an experiment is where you choose your experimental participants randomly. If you use randomization in your experiments, you guard against bias. For example, selection bias (where some groups are underrepresented) is eliminated and accidental bias (where chance imbalances happen) is minimized.

## How do you find the probability of success and failure?

The probability of failure is just 1 minus the probability of success: P(F) = 1 – p. (Remember that “1” is the total probability of an event occurring… probability is always between zero and 1).

## What are successes in statistics?

What is the number of successes? Each trial in a binomial experiment can have one of two outcomes. The experimenter classifies one outcome as a success; and the other, as a failure. The number of successes in a binomial experient is the number of trials that result in an outcome classified as a success.

## What does NPQ stand for in statistics?

repeated using identical conditions

## How do you calculate Npq?

The quenched Fm is termed Fm’. Hence, the level of NPQ can be calculated as (Fm−Fm’)/Fm’. Another parameter, qN, is used to calculate nonphotochemical quenching: qN = (Fm−Fm’)/Fm.

## What is the probability of success?

Binomial probability refers to the probability of exactly x successes on n repeated trials in an experiment which has two possible outcomes (commonly called a binomial experiment). If the probability of success on an individual trial is p , then the binomial probability is nCx⋅px⋅(1−p)n−x .

## How do you find probability in statistics?

How to calculate probability

- Determine a single event with a single outcome.
- Identify the total number of outcomes that can occur.
- Divide the number of events by the number of possible outcomes.

## What is the probability of failure?

Probability of Failure Definition There are two equivalent ways to phrase the definition: The probability or chance that a unit drawn at random from the population will fail by time t. The proportion or fraction of all units in the population that fail by time t.

## What is 1 p the probability of failure?

If the probability of success is p, the probability of failure is 1 – p. Such an experiment whose outcome is random and can be either of two possibilities, “success” or “failure”, is called a Bernoulli trial, after Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli (1654 – 1705).

## What is the formula for probability of failure?

The rule of succession states that the estimated probability of failure is (F+1)/(N+2), where F is the number of failures. In that case, ˆp=9. and the calculation for the predicted probability of 1+ failures in the next 10,000 is 1-pbinom(0, size=10000, prob=9.9998e-06) , yielding 0., or ≈10%.

## What is the formula for reliability?

Reliability is complementary to probability of failure, i.e. R(t) = 1 –F(t) , orR(t) = 1 –Π[1 −Rj(t)] . For example, if two components are arranged in parallel, each with reliability R1 = R2 = 0.9, that is, F1 = F2 = 0.1, the resultant probability of failure is F = 0.1 × 0.1 = 0.01.

## What is an example of reliability?

The term reliability in psychological research refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test. For example, if a person weighs themselves during the course of a day they would expect to see a similar reading. If a test is reliable it should show a high positive correlation.

## How do you determine the reliability of a sample?

Here are the four most common ways of measuring reliability for any empirical method or metric:

- inter-rater reliability.
- test-retest reliability.
- parallel forms reliability.
- internal consistency reliability.

## Why is test reliability important?

Why is it important to choose measures with good reliability? Having good test re-test reliability signifies the internal validity of a test and ensures that the measurements obtained in one sitting are both representative and stable over time.

## What is reliability in quantitative research?

The second measure of quality in a quantitative study is reliability, or the accuracy of an instrument. In other words, the extent to which a research instrument consistently has the same results if it is used in the same situation on repeated occasions.

## Which statistical method is used to determine the reliability of a test?

Reliability can be assessed with the test-retest method, alternative form method, internal consistency method, the split-halves method, and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest is a method that administers the same instrument to the same sample at two different points in time, perhaps one year intervals.