When should you take phenytoin?
It’s OK to take any form of phenytoin either with food or without food, but be consistent day in and day out. A person who usually takes it with meals should do that all the time. Don’t use more than the doctor prescribes. If one or two extra capsules are taken, call the doctor for advice.
What is phenytoin test?
The phenytoin test is used to optimize drug therapy, monitor the amount of phenytoin in the blood, determine whether drug concentrations are in the therapeutic range, and to monitor patient adherence.
What is a toxic phenytoin level?
Twenty to 30 mg/L: Nystagmus. Thirty to 40 mg/L: Ataxia, slurred speech, tremor, nausea, and vomiting. Forty to 50 mg/L: Lethargy, confusion, hyperactivity. Greater than 50 mg/L: Coma and seizures.
What is Phenytoin 100mg used for?
Phenytoin is used to prevent and control seizures (also called an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug). It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain.
Is phenytoin a sedative?
Chronic use of phenytoin has been shown to produce mild sedation. Because of the development of tolerance with chronic use, such level of sedation is not remarkable and thus not witnessed clinically.
Can phenytoin be taken with milk?
You may give phenytoin with food or milk, but be consistent. Always give phenytoin with food or milk or always give it on an empty stomach. If your child is taking chewable tablets, encourage your child not to swallow them whole.
How do you administer phenytoin IV push?
Phenytoin IV administration
- Give phenytoin over 30-40 minutes (rate <50mg/minute).
- Ideally, administer undiluted via a syringe pump through a large gauge needle or IV catheter into a large forearm vein.
Why is phenytoin given IV?
Phenytoin Injection is indicated for the control of status epilepticus of the tonic-clonic (grand mal) type and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery and/or severe head injury.
How fast can you administer IV phenytoin?
The rate of administration for IV phenytoin should be no greater than 50 mg per minute in adults and 1-3 mg/kg/min (or 50 mg per minute, whichever is slower) in pediatric patients. Serum concentrations should be monitored and care should be taken when switching a patient from the sodium salt to the free acid form.
Can you piggyback phenytoin?
Phenytoin Sodium must be administered by intermittent infusion in mini bag or piggyback, and on volumetric pump.
What is the indication of phenytoin?
Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status epilepticus. It is in the anticonvulsants class of drugs.
What is unique about phenytoin elimination?
Phenytoin has unique pharmacokinetics. At therapeutic levels, elimination follows first-order kinetics. In the upper therapeutic and toxic range, elimination changes from first-order to zero-order kinetics due to saturation of the hepatic hydroxylation system.
How does phenytoin prevent seizures?
Phenytoin is used to prevent and control seizures (also called an anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drug). It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain. Phenytoin may also be used to treat certain types of irregular heartbeats.
Is phenytoin basic or acidic?
Phenytoin (PHT; 5,5-diphenylhydantoin) is a weak acid with pKa of 8.3 (1).
Where is phenytoin absorbed?
Phenytoin is rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. Inactivation occurs via hydroxylation in the liver. The main metabolite is excreted through the kidneys. The half-life of phenytoin varies considerably, from 20 to 50 hours.