What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
In which compartment with fluid accumulates in edema?
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
Even under the condition with normal pH (7.35-7.45) of “arterial” blood, pH of interstitial fluids would deviate from the normal range. Our previous reports indicate that the pH of interstitial fluids is deviated form the normal range[15-17] even under conditions maintained at normal “arterial” blood pH.
What is the pH of human cells?
Physiologically normal intracellular pH is most commonly between 7.0 and 7.4, though there is variability between tissues (e.g., mammalian skeletal muscle tends to have a pHi of 6.8–7.1). There is also pH variation across different organelles, which can span from around 4.5 to 8.0.
What is the main cause of respiratory acidosis?
Respiratory acidosis involves a decrease in respiratory rate and/or volume (hypoventilation). Common causes include impaired respiratory drive (eg, due to toxins, CNS disease), and airflow obstruction (eg, due to asthma, COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], sleep apnea, airway edema).
How do you know if you’re acidic?
Optimal pH levels are between 6.5 and 7.5. When the pH level is lower than 6.5, the body is considered acidic and when the pH level is higher than 7.5, the body is considered alkaline.
How can you tell if respiratory acidosis is acute or chronic?
- Acute: Expected decrease in pH = 0.08 x (measured PaCO2 – 40)
- Chronic: Expected drop in pH = 0.03 x (measured PaCO2 – 40)
What happens respiratory acidosis?
Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity.
How do you reduce PCO2?
Hypercapnia: To modify CO2 content in blood one needs to modify alveolar ventilation. To do this, the tidal volume or the respiratory rate may be tampered with (T low and P Low in APRV). Raising the rate or the tidal volume, as well as increasing T low, will increase ventilation and decrease CO2.
What is a normal PCO2 level?
Generally, under normal physiologic conditions, the value of PCO2 ranges between 35 to 45 mmHg, or 4.7 to 6.0 kPa. Typically the measurement of PCO2 is performed via an arterial blood gas; however, there are other methods such as peripheral venous, central venous, or mixed venous sampling.
Where is the highest PCO2 in the body?
80 Cards in this Set
|diffusion||Gas movement between the lungs and tissues occurs via simple diffusion|
|Identify where the highest/lowest PO2 & PCO2 are found.||Highest PO2 in air, lowest in cells. Highest PCO2 in cells, lowest in air.|
|Define PAO2||Alveolar partial pressure of oxygen|
|Calculate PAO2||PAO2=FIO2x (PB-47) – PACO2|
What is normal Bicarb level?
Normal bicarbonate levels are: 23 to 30 mEq/L in adults.
What is the difference between PCO2 and PaCO2?
PO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) reflects the amount of oxygen gas dissolved in the blood….ABG (Arterial Blood Gas)
|BE||Base excess (positive number) or base deficit (negative number)|
|PCO2||Partial pressure of carbon dioxide|
|PaCO2||Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood|
What causes low PCO2?
The most common cause of decreased PCO2 is an absolute increase in ventilation. Decreased CO2 production without increased ventilation, such as during anesthesia, can also cause respiratory alkalosis. Decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide will decrease acidity.
What does PaCO2 stand for?
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
How a rise in blood PCO2 stimulates breathing?
A small decrease in pCO2 leads to an increase in the pH of the CSF, which stimulates the respiratory centres to decrease ventilation. A small increase in pCO2 leads to a decease in the pH of the CSF, which stimulates the respiratory centres to increase ventilation.
Why do females have higher respiratory rates?
Females’ reduced airways diameter and lung volume result in lower peak expiratory flow and vital capacity. The most important consequence is women have a smaller maximal flow–volume loop. Their capacity to generate increased ventilation during exercise is, therefore, smaller with respect to men.
What is the normal respiratory drive?
During normal quiet breathing about 500 ml of air moves into and out of the respiratory system with each breath. This volume is known as the tidal volume (TV). Tidal volume may vary widely according to body size, sex, age, physical condition and body position.
What increases respiratory drive?
An increase in the arterial carbon dioxide level leads to an increase in the depth and rate of respiration, and the person breathes faster. A reduction in the arterial carbon dioxide level leads to reduced depth and rate of respiration, and the person breathes more slowly.
Why can’t people with COPD have oxygen?
In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death.
What is respiratory drive?
The respiratory drive is the intensity of the output of the respiratory centers, and determines the mechanical output of the respiratory muscles (also known as breathing effort) [1, 2]. Strategies that prevent the detrimental effects of both high and low respiratory drive might therefore improve patient outcome .