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2021-05-14

What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation?

What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation?

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic translations are involved in protein synthesis. The key difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation is that eukaryotic translation and transcription is an asynchronous process whereas prokaryotic translation and transcription is a synchronous process.

What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein synthesis?

A few aspects of protein synthesis are actually less complex in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, mRNA is polycistronic and may carry several genes that are translated to give several proteins. In eukaryotes, each mRNA is monocistronic and carries only a single gene, which is translated into a single protein.

What is the difference between prokaryotic mRNA and eukaryotic mRNA?

The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA is that prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic, whereas eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. In addition to these, transcription is coupled with translation in prokaryotes while transcription of eukaryotes occurs after the completion of transcription.

Are there Polycistronic mRNA in eukaryotes?

However, polycistronic mRNAs are known to exist in eukaryotic viruses [5], hence the eukaryotic translational machinery must have ways to deal with them.

Where is mRNA found in eukaryotic cells?

The process of making mRNA from DNA is called transcription, and it occurs in the nucleus. The mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins, which occurs in the cytoplasm. mRNA formed in the nucleus is transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm where it attaches to the ribosomes.

What happens during mRNA processing?

This transcript must undergo processing (splicing and addition of 5′ cap and poly-A tail) while it is still in the nucleus in order to become a mature mRNA. The mature mRNA is exported from the nucleus to the cytosol, where it is translated at a ribosome to make a polypeptide.

Does mRNA processing occur in prokaryotes?

In prokaryotes, there is a little or no processing of mRNA transcripts. Prokaryotic mRNA is degraded very rapidly from 5′ end. Therefore, to rescue from degradation it is translated before being finally transcribed.

What is the difference between pre-mRNA and mature mRNA?

Pre-mRNA and mRNA differ in a suprising way. Pre-mRNA is an exact copy of the gene, nucleotide by nucleotide. However, it undergoes a process called splicing and capping. The “mature” mRNA contains only exons; this is what actually determines the polypeptide’s composition.

What are the three stages of protein synthesis?

Much like the processes of DNA replication and transcription, translation consists of three main stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation takes place with the binding of a ribosome to an mRNA transcript.

What is meant by RNA processing?

RNA processing is the term collectively used to describe the sequence of events through which the primary transcript from a gene acquires its mature form. Very soon after synthesis by RNA polymerase II begins, transcripts from nuclear protein-coding genes acquire a 5′ cap structure.

Is RNA processing a part of transcription?

DNA transcription occurs in a cell’s nucleus. The RNA that is synthesized in this process is then transferred to the cell’s cytoplasm where it is translated into a protein. In prokaryotes, the RNA that is synthesized during DNA transcription is ready for translation into a protein.