What is the depth of Challenger Deep?
approximately 36,200 feet
What do scientists use to study the depths of the ocean?
Underwater observatories offer perhaps the most permanent way of studying the deep sea. For instance, MBARI has one called MARS, the Monterey Accelerated Research System, which sits on the seafloor 3,200 feet (980 m) deep. Instruments can be plugged into ports in the observatory to monitor seismic faults, for example.
How did the Challenger Expedition measure the depth of and map the ocean floor?
Every few days, Challenger sounded, or plunged a weighted line into the water to determine how deep it was. They also recorded the ocean’s temperature at various depths and dragged a weighted net with a 10-foot-wide mouth across a patch of the ocean floor and hauled aboard the sea creatures and sediments it dredged up.
What was the purpose of the HMS Challenger?
Modern oceanography began with the Challenger Expedition between 1872 and 1876. It was the first expedition organized specifically to gather data on a wide range of ocean features, including ocean temperatures seawater chemistry, currents, marine life, and the geology of the seafloor.
What did the second HMS Challenger do 1951?
In 1951, the HMS Challenger II undertook a 2-year survey of precise deep-sea measurements of the world ocean. She traveled more than 600,000 km (375,000 mi) and recovered 96 km (~58 mi) of deep-sea cores. A primary goal of these expeditions was to test the hypothesis of sea floor spreading and plate tectonics.
Where is the HMS Challenger now?
The United States Space Shuttle Challenger was named after the ship. Her figurehead is on display in the foyer of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton.
How long did the Challenger expedition last?
Who led the HMS Challenger expedition?
George Strong Nares
What hypothesis did the Challenger expedition disprove?
The Challenger made 492 deep soundings, with samples and nets at 362 stations. The hypothesis was proven false when 4717 new animals and plants were discovered at stations to all depths.
Who were the earliest skilled Ocean Traders?
The first regular ocean traders were probably the Cretans, or the Phoenicians who inherited maritime supremacy in the Mediterranean after the destruction of the Cretan civilizations around 1200 B.C.E. E. Phoenicians traveled through the Strait of Gibraltar to markets as distant as Britain and the west coast of Africa.
What was the maximum depth recorded by the Challenger expedition?
10,902 to 10,929 m
What contributions to marine science did the voyage of the HMS Challenger from 1872 1876 yield?
(1.1) What contributions to marine science did the voyage of the HMS Challenger from 1872-1876 yield? The expedition set new standards for ocean research. For the first time, scientists began to get a coherent picture of what the ocean was like.
What were the major contributions of the HMS Challenger to the study of oceanography quizlet?
The HMS Challenger was a British warship that was retrofitted as the first ever oceanographic research vessel. During its 3-year voyage, the HMS Challenger sailed around the world, collecting information about the ocean depths and collecting samples. It took 19 years to publish the results in a 50-volume set!
What was the primary reason early explorers went to sea?
Three primary reasons for early civilization to interact with the ocean: To obtain food. Trade with other cultures. To discover new lands.
How did ancient explorers navigate near shore and in the open ocean?
How did ancient explorers navigate near shore and in the open ocean? – learned to use the sun, constellations, the North Star and sea conditions to navigate in the open ocean. -Greeks knew the Earth was a sphere, not flat. He calculated the Earth’s circumference.
What did the Vikings contribute to ocean exploration?
Even though they were worriors, they had a huge impact on Oceanography today. They helped find new colonies, explored some of North America and were great navigators. They biuld what we call ‘Dragon Ships’, which in 1880, archaeologists found a whole ship intact. They also built a ship know as the Knarr.
How did ancient explorers navigate near shore?
How did ancient explorers navigate near shore and in the open ocean? – learned to use the sun, constellations, the North Star and sea conditions to navigate in the open ocean. -Greeks knew the Earth was a sphere, not flat. Where is the North Star located?
Why did sailors use navigate stars?
The pole stars were used to navigate because they did not disappear below the horizon and could be seen consistently throughout the night. To navigate along a degree of latitude a sailor would have needed to find a circumpolar star above that degree in the sky.
Who is the father of navigation?
Sir George Cayley
How did ancient sailors use dead reckoning to navigate?
Dead reckoning was a method in which the navigator would measure the distance and course from a specific point, such as the port. He would mark the day’s ending point on a chart, and this point would serve as the starting point for the next day. Dead reckoning didn’t determine the ship’s latitude.
What are the 4 types of navigation?
The most common navigation methods are satnav, dead reckoning, and radar navigation.
- Dead reckoning.
- Celestial navigation.
- Inertial navigation.
- Radio navigation.
- Radar navigation.
- Satellite navigation.
Why is it called dead reckoning?
The expression dead reckoning probably originated from use of the Dutchman’s log, a buoyant object thrown overboard to determine the speed of the vessel relative to the object, which was assumed to be dead in the water. Apparently, the expression deduced reckoning was used when allowance was made for current and wind.
What star do sailors use to navigate?
What are the 3 types of navigation?
As with different ways to describe location, there are also different ways to navigate places. Three main types of navigation are celestial, GPS, and map and compass.
How did sailors use Polaris to navigate the seas?
Since the pole happens to be pointed at Polaris, the medium-bright star is always directly overhead there. That makes Polaris the Earth’s North Star. (There is no corresponding South Star, simply because the South celestial pole isn’t pointing at any easily visible star.)
Why do sailors use the North Star?
Due to its consistent position in the sky, at one time sailors used the North Star as a navigational tool. By measuring the angle between the northern horizon and the North Star, a navigator could accurately determine the ship’s latitude.
Why is the North Star so important?
What is the North Star? The reason Polaris is so important is because the axis of Earth is pointed almost directly at it. So at any hour of the night, at any time of the year in the Northern Hemisphere, you can readily find Polaris and it is always found in a due northerly direction.