What is included in massive transfusion protocol?
Targets of resuscitation in the setting of massive transfusion include:
- Mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 to 65 mm Hg.
- Hemoglobin 7 to 9 g/dL.
- INR less than 1.5.
- Fibrinogen greater than 1.5 to 2 g/L.
- Platelets greater than 50 times 10/L.
- pH 7.35 to 7.45.
- Core temperature greater than 35 C.
When do you start massive transfusion protocol?
when should the massive transfusion protocol be initiated?
- There are no simple criteria for this.
- The hemoglobin level takes hours to fall after bleeding.
- Hypotension is usually a late manifestation of hemorrhage.
Is hypercalcaemia a complication of massive transfusion?
Complications of massive transfusion include the following: Coagulopathy is caused by a dilutional effect on the host’s clotting factors and platelets, as well as the lack of platelets and clotting factors in packed red blood cells. Volume overload. Hypothermia.
Is there a limit to massive blood transfusion after severe trauma?
Conclusions: Although mortality among critically injured patients requiring operation and massive blood transfusion can be correlated with independent risk factors, discontinuation of short-term care cannot be justified based on the need for massive blood transfusion of up to 68 units.
How does blood transfusion cause metabolic acidosis?
In conclusion, there is an increase in carbon dioxide production as a result of citrate metabolism in non-massive, frequent blood transfusions; elevated carbon dioxide production causes intracellular acidosis; metabolic alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance such as hypocalcemia, hypokalemia.
What diseases can I get from a blood transfusion?
Viral agents that are capable of being transmitted through blood transfusion include the following:
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Hepatitis viruses.
- West Nile virus (WNV)
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Human T-cell lymphotrophic viruses (HTLVs)
- Parvovirus B19.
Can you get sick after a blood transfusion?
Blood transfusions are generally considered safe, but there is some risk of complications. Mild complications and rarely severe ones can occur during the transfusion or several days or more after. More common reactions include allergic reactions, which might cause hives and itching, and fever.
Why patients who have multiple transfusions can get hypocalcemia?
The potential for hypocalcemia among patients receiving large amounts of donated blood products over a short time period is due to the presence of the anticoagulant citrate in the bag that donated blood is collected to. Each unit of packed red cells for transfusion contains approximately 3 gm citrate.