In what way is eukaryotic transcription more complex than prokaryotic transcription?
Eukaryotic transcription is more complex than prokaryotic transcription. For instance, in eukaryotes the genetic material (DNA), and therefore transcription, is primarily localized to the nucleus, where it is separated from the cytoplasm (in which translation occurs) by the nuclear membrane.
What are three differences in transcription between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes have only one RNA Polymerase, while eukaryotes have three (RNA Polymerases I, which transcribes rRNA; II, which transcribes mRNA; and III, which transcribes tRNA). The difference in molecular weight between the prokaryotic polymerase and Pol II in eukaryotes is 100 kDa (400 kDa to 500 kDa).
How is transcription different in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
There is no such structure seen in prokaryotes. Another main difference between the two is that transcription and translation occurs simultaneously in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes the RNA is first transcribed in the nucleus and then translated in the cytoplasm. These events do not occur in prokaryotes.
How is transcription a more complex process in eukaryotic cells explain?
Transcription is considered to be more complex process in eukaryotic cells because it has additional complexities: First, there are atleast three RNApolymerase in the nucleus in addition to RNA polymerase found in the organelles.
Why is gene expression more complex in eukaryotes?
Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and translation are physically separated. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells can regulate gene expression at many different levels.
What stops transcription in eukaryotes?
When the 5′-exonulease “catches up” to RNA Polymerase II by digesting away all the overhanging RNA, it helps disengage the polymerase from its DNA template strand, finally terminating that round of transcription.
How does RNA polymerase know where to start and stop transcription?
How does an RNA polymerase know where to start copying DNA to make a transcript? Signals in DNA indicate to RNA polymerase where it should start and end transcription. A DNA sequence at which the RNA polymerase binds to start transcription is called a promoter.
What is the purpose of RNA polymerase in transcription?
RNA polymerase is an enzyme that is responsible for copying a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence, duyring the process of transcription.
What is the initial target of RNA polymerase?
What is the initial target of RNA polymerase? template strand of DNA.
What is the role of RNA Primase?
Primase is an enzyme that synthesizes short RNA sequences called primers. Since primase produces RNA molecules, the enzyme is a type of RNA polymerase. Primase functions by synthesizing short RNA sequences that are complementary to a single-stranded piece of DNA, which serves as its template.
How does the ribosome know if the entering charged tRNA is correct?
During the initiation step of translation, the fMet charged tRNA assembles in which site of the ribosome? How does the ribosome know if the entering charged tRNA is correct? The anticodon on the tRNA base pairs to the codon on the mRNA. Where would one find an uncharged tRNA molecule in a ribosome?
Where does transcription occur in prokaryotes?
What stops transcription in prokaryotes?
Termination in Prokaryotes Rho-dependent termination is controlled by the rho protein, which tracks along behind the polymerase on the growing mRNA chain. The interaction with rho releases the mRNA from the transcription bubble. Rho-independent termination is controlled by specific sequences in the DNA template strand.
What are the steps of transcription in prokaryotes?
Transcription involves four steps:
- Initiation. The DNA molecule unwinds and separates to form a small open complex.
- Elongation. RNA polymerase moves along the template strand, synthesising an mRNA molecule.
- Termination. In prokaryotes there are two ways in which transcription is terminated.
Where does transcription occur in prokaryotes quizlet?
For prokaryotes DNA replication, transcription, and translation occur inside of the cytoplasm.
Where in the eukaryotic cell does transcription occur?
Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotes?
Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation. Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.
Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells quizlet?
in prokaryotes transcription and translation both occur in the cytoplasm. in eukaryotes translation occurs in the ribosomes of the rough ER and transcription occurs in the nucleus.
Where does translation occur in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
In eukaryotes, transcription and translation take place in different cellular compartments: transcription takes place in the membrane-bounded nucleus, whereas translation takes place outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, the two processes are closely coupled (Figure 28.15).
How many different types of RNA polymerases are in eukaryotes?
What is the difference between RNA polymerase 1 and 2?
RNA polymerase I (RNAPI) transcribes rRNA genes, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcribes mRNA, miRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA genes, and RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) transcribes tRNA and 5S rRNA genes. This is in contrast with prokaryotes where a single RNA polymerase is responsible for the transcription of all genes.
What are the three functions of RNA polymerase?
RNA polymerases transcribe the information in DNA into RNA molecules that have a variety of functions, including messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA (for protein synthesis), ribozymes (for catalysis), and microRNA (for regulation of gene expression).