How do bacteria generate and maintain genetic diversity?
In prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another organism within the same generation, is an important way to promote genetic diversity. HGT allows even distantly related species to share genes, influencing their phenotypes.
How is genetic diversity maintained?
Mutation. Random mutations consistently generate genetic variation. A mutation will increase genetic diversity in the short term, as a new gene is introduced to the gene pool. However, the persistence of this gene is dependent of drift and selection (see above).
How do bacteria achieve genetic variability?
Bacterial variation can also occur by horizontal transfer of genetic material from one cell to another. Mutation and gene transfer work together to accelerate the rate of bacterial evolution. The spontaneous changes required to produce a new function (e.g. antibiotic resistance) may occur at a low frequency.
What is the most common source of genetic diversity in a bacterial colony?
Does binary fission result in genetic diversity?
Binary fission makes clones, or genetically identical copies, of the parent bacterium. Since the “child” bacteria are genetically identical to the parent, binary fission doesn’t provide an opportunity for genetic recombination or genetic diversity (aside from the occasional random mutation).
Why do bacteria do horizontal gene transfer?
Horizontal gene transfer enables bacteria to respond and adapt to their environment much more rapidly by acquiring large DNA sequences from another bacterium in a single transfer. Horizontal gene transfer is a process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another organism that is not its offspring.
Do viruses affect genes?
Many of the traits that make viruses so effective at transmitting disease also make them an essential part of our genetic makeup. As it turns out, their contributions to our genome over the eons account for a range of important human qualities.
Where does the energy for a virus to replicate come from?
Viruses are too small and simple to collect or use their own energy – they just steal it from the cells they infect. Viruses only need energy when they make copies of themselves, and they don’t need any energy at all when they are outside of a cell.
What is difference between Virus & Bacteria?
Bacteria are single-celled, living organisms. They have a cell wall and all the components necessary to survive and reproduce, although some may derive energy from other sources. Viruses are not considered to be “living” because they require a host cell to survive long-term, for energy, and to reproduce.