How can isotopic data be used?
Isotopic analysis can be used to understand the flow of energy through a food web, to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions, to investigate human and animal diets in the past, for food authentification, and a variety of other physical, geological, palaeontological and chemical processes.
How did you use isotopes in your investigation?
Researchers investigate the potential of using isotopes in specific amino acids in human hair as a forensic tool to provide information about an individual’s age, sex, race, body mass, genetic disorders, health, and region of origin.
How does isotopic analysis work?
By measuring the ratios of different isotopes in bones or teeth and using scientific knowledge about how they occur in nature to trace them back to the sources that they came from, archaeologists can find out many things about an individual, such as what their diet was like and the environment they grew up in.
How do forensic scientists use analysis of hydrogen and oxygen?
Since the human body is made up of water, which is a compound made of hydrogen and oxygen, forensic scientists examine the presence of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes that are found in our body tissues, including our hair through chemical and radiological analysis.
How is forensic science used to solve crimes?
Forensic scientists use various techniques to accurately recreate and establish the order of events that led to a crime. The physical evidence, meticulously gathered through applying the scientific method, is then used in the court of law to prove someone’s innocence or guilt.
What clues can you get from isotopes found in hair?
Stable isotopes help narrow that search. Deuterium and oxygen-18 from a victim’s hair or fingernails “can exclude 80 or 90 percent of the world,” Meier-Augenstein notes. A nitrogen-15 analysis of the victim’s muscle tissue could reveal that he was a vegetarian, another useful clue.
What information can you get from hair?
Hair can yield DNA evidence, if hair is pulled out by the root, as in some violent struggles, it will contain root pulp which is a good source of nuclear DNA (nDNA), the type of DNA most often used in forensics.
What can the study of oxygen isotopes tell us about ancient oceans and paleoclimate?
Thus, high concentrations of heavy oxygen in the ocean tell scientists that light oxygen was trapped in the ice sheets. The exact oxygen ratios can show how much ice covered the Earth. Ocean waters rich in light oxygen: Conversely, as temperatures rise, ice sheets melt, and freshwater runs into the ocean.
What is an isotope of oxygen?
Oxygen is made up of two isotopes: Oxygen – 16 (also known as. 16O → 8 protons + 8 neutrons; a “light” oxygen); The relative amounts are expressed as either 18O/16O or δ 18O Oxygen – 18 (aka 18O → 8 protons + 10 neutrons; a “heavy” oxygen). 16 and 18 are atomic masses of isotopes 16O and 18O.
What is the importance of oxygen 18?
O-18 is used as a tracer in many hydrologic studies. It is most often used as a component in a mixing-model and hydrograph separation, as O-18 acts conservatively and is applied naturally and uniformly over broad areas. O-18 can be used when different sources (old water/new water) have different isotopic values.
What is the most dangerous radioisotope?
Which is the most dangerous element?
How does polonium kill you?
If polonium-210 enters the body, through inhalation, swallowing, broken skin, the results can be fatal. By mass, polonium-210 is one of the deadliest toxins, around 250 billion times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide.
Can I buy polonium?
Yes, Polonium-210, “which experts say is many times more deadly than cyanide,” the story notes, “can be bought legally through United Nuclear Scientific Supplies, a mail-order company that sells through the Web.
Is Polonium-210 in cigarettes?
Yes, that too. Tobacco smoke contains a radioactive chemical element called polonium-210. Now, a new study reported in the Independent and to be published in the American Journal of Public Health suggests that tobacco companies have known about the danger of polonium in cigarette smoke for over 40 years.
Is polonium used in nuclear bombs?
During the Manhattan Project, the rare element polonium (Po) was synthesized by neutron bombardment of bismuth in nuclear reactors for use in neutron-generating triggers that were used to initiate the fission chain reactions in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs.
How is polonium used today?
Polonium (Po) is a very rare and highly volatile radioactive metal. In commercial applications, polonium is occasionally used to remove static electricity in machinery or dust from photographic film. It can also be used as a lightweight heat source for thermoelectric power in space satellites.
Can polonium kill you?
Death and last statement Litvinenko had ingested polonium-210, a poisonous radioactive isotope. Mario Scaramella, who had eaten with Litvinenko, reported that doctors had told him the body had five times the lethal dose of polonium-210.