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2021-05-16

Why might the number of genes in the genome underestimate the number of different proteins that an organism makes?

Why might the number of genes in the genome underestimate the number of different proteins that an organism makes?

Why might the number of genes in the genome underestimate the number of different proteins that an organism makes? Many genes undergo alternative splicing, so that different proteins with different exon combinations are produced from the same gene.

How many genes is the human genome thought to contain?

30,000 genes

What factor accounts most for the difference in genome size between vertebrates and prokaryotes?

What factor accounts most for the difference in genome size between vertebrates and prokaryotes? Vertebrates have more noncoding DNA sequences. There is about 1,000 times as much DNA in a human cell as in an E. coli cell, but only about 5 times as many genes.

Which of these organisms is likely to have the largest genome?

And the largest genome of any organism is contested – the 000 base pairs of the tiny amoeba Polychaos dubiu is contested, because it’s size was estimated before modern techniques were developed, so it might be wrong! So the most likely candidate for biggest genome is actually Paris japonica.

What is the function of protein coding genes?

Protein coding sequences are DNA sequences that are transcribed into mRNA and in which the corresponding mRNA molecules are translated into a polypeptide chain. Every three nucleotides, termed a codon, in a protein coding sequence encodes 1 amino acid in the polypeptide chain.

What do non coding genes do?

Non-coding DNA sequences are components of an organism’s DNA that do not encode protein sequences. Other functions of non-coding DNA include the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding sequences, scaffold attachment regions, origins of DNA replication, centromeres and telomeres.

What is genome coding?

Here we review the main computational pipelines used to generate the human reference protein-coding gene sets. The genome sequence is an organism’s blueprint: the set of instructions dictating its biological traits. The unfolding of these instructions is initiated by the transcription of the DNA into RNA sequences.

How many lines of code are in DNA?

A million lines of code is probably on the order of 20 million instructions, or 600 million bits. That’s not far off of the 3 billions base pairs in human DNA. Unlike DNA, which has redundancies and so-called “junk” sequences, every single bit in the code must be perfect.