Close

2021-05-16

Why do non-polar substances dissolve in nonpolar solvents?

Why do non-polar substances dissolve in nonpolar solvents?

When a nonpolar solute meets a nonpolar solvent, the attraction between the solvent and solute molecules is also greater than the solute-solute or solvent-solvent forces; ergo, a nonpolar solute can generally dissolve in a nonpolar solvent (driven by entropy, of course).

Why do some nonpolar substances dissolve in water and others do not?

Nonpolar compounds do not dissolve in water. The attractive forces that operate between the particles in a nonpolar compound are weak dispersion forces. However, the nonpolar molecules are more attracted to themselves than they are to the polar water molecules.

Why do polar and nonpolar molecules not mix?

In non-polar substances, there are dispersion forces between each molecule. These dispersion forces are relatively weak and hence only require little energy to break them. These forces are much stronger than dispersion forces and require more energy to break.

What is the rule when using polar and non-polar solvents?

The rule of thumb is that “like dissolves like”. Polar/ionic solvents dissolve polar/ionic solutes and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes. For example, water is a polar solvent and it will dissolve salts and other polar molecules, but not non-polar molecules like oil.

Does acetone hydrogen bond with water?

Acetone can form hydrogen bonds with water.

How many hydrogen bonding sites does acetone have?

The water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with acetone: the hydrogen atom of H2O is coordinated to the carbonyl group of acetone, and the oxygen atom forms a weak hydrogen bond with a methyl hydrogen [8].

What type of bond does acetone have?

covalent bonds

Is acetone a tetrahedral?

Acetone is the most simple ketone, thus it has is formed by a three carbon chain which has two of the hydrogen from second carbon substituted by an oxygen double bound with the carbon atom. The center of the molecule is planar-trigonal due the C sp2 while the extremes have methyl group with tetrahedral geometry.

Is acetone a hydrogen donor or acceptor?

Acetone is aprotic. Its oxygen atom is a hydrogen bond acceptor, the molecule has no hydrogen with enough δ+ charge to be a hydrogen bond donor.

Can Cyclobutane form hydrogen bonds with water?

Based on the given structure, there is no H directly connected to either N, O or F for cyclobutane. So both molecules are expected to have a Hydrogen bond with H2O. The correct answers are: (a) acetic acid and (b) propanamide are expected to form a Hydrogen bond with water.

Can cyclohexane form hydrogen bonds with water?

In contrast, cyclohexane is not capable of forming strong intermolecular attractions with water (no hydrogen bonding), so the water-cyclohexane interactions are not as energetically favorable as the interactions that already exist among polar water molecules.

Does pentane form hydrogen bonds with water?

Pentane is non polar and the other two have hydrogen bonds through the OH group.

What molecules can form hydrogen bonds with water?

Hydrogen bonding between two water (H2O) molecules. Note that the O atom in one molecule is attracted to a H atom in the second molecule. Hydrogen bonding between a water molecule and an ammonia (NH3) molecule….

element electronegativity value
F 4.1

Can CH3COCH3 form hydrogen bonds?

Acetone, CH3COCH3 is called a hydrogen bond acceptor. It has an electronegative oxygen that can hydrogen-bond with the hydrogen on water, but it does not have a hydrogen that can hydrogen-bond to itself.

Which of the following can hydrogen bond?

Hydrogen bonding occurs only in molecules where hydrogen is covalently bonded to one of three elements: fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. These three elements are so electronegative that they withdraw the majority of the electron density in the covalent bond with hydrogen, leaving the H atom very electron-deficient.

Can water form hydrogen bonds?

Water molecules forming hydrogen bonds with one another. The partial negative charge on the O of one molecule can form a hydrogen bond with the partial positive charge on the hydrogens of other molecules. Water molecules are also attracted to other polar molecules and to ions.

Can acetic acid hydrogen bond?

The hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) between acetic acid and water molecules represents the strongest force governing the physical and chemical properties of the mixtures, and therefore it affects the vapor−liquid equilibrium of the HAc/H2O system.

Can c2h4o2 form hydrogen bonds?

The study shows that in dilute aqueous solution of HOAc the more favorable molecular interaction is the hydrogen bonding between HOAc and H2O molecules, resulting in the separation of acetic acid from the HOAc/H2O mixtures with more difficulty than usual.