Who uses Physicians Desk Reference?
The Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR) is a widely used source of drug information by American physicians and patients, but as we shall discuss, it suffers from numerous shortcomings. The PDR is a collection of written and pictorial information that is provided and paid for by pharmaceutical manufacturers.
What are the 6 PDR sections?
Terms in this set (6)
- Manufacturers’ index. This is the initial white section.
- Brand and generic names. This is usually pink.
- Product classification, or category, index. This is blue.
- Product identification guide.
- Product Information.
- Diagnostic product information.
Which are the most frequently used drug routes?
- Oral administration. This is the most frequently used route of drug administration and is the most convenient and economic.
- Rectal administration.
- Topical administration.
- Parenteral administration.
- Intravenous injection.
What ionized drugs?
Ionized (or charged) drugs are not absorbed as efficiently as un-ionized drugs are. Practically speaking, this means that if taken orally, a drug that is a weak acid will be absorbed primarily in the acidic environment; whereas, a drug that is a weak base will be absorbed in the alkaline environment small intestines.
What is the difference between ionized and unionized drug?
Most drugs are weak acids or bases that are present in solution as both the ionized and unionized forms. Ionized molecules are usually unable to penetrate lipid cell membranes because they are hydrophilic and poorly lipid soluble. Unionized molecules are usually lipid soluble and can diffuse across cell membranes.
What does ionized mean?
Ionization, in chemistry and physics, any process by which electrically neutral atoms or molecules are converted to electrically charged atoms or molecules (ions). Ionization is one of the principal ways that radiation, such as charged particles and X rays, transfers its energy to matter.
What is another word for ionized?
Ionized Synonyms – WordHippo Thesaurus….What is another word for ionized?
Why is ionisation dangerous to humans?
When the dose is high enough, ionizing radiation causes two types of harm to humans: direct tissue damage and cancer. Direct tissue damage happens when enough molecules are broken apart that the cells simply can no longer function. This can lead to radiation burns, radiation sickness, organ failure, and even death.
How do you know if a compound is ionized?
To determine whether or not it does completely ionize/dissociate, you can write the chemical formula of what the acid/base is reacting with, and if it forms water and its conjugate salt, then it has completely dissociated/ionized.
What happens when acids and bases are ionized?
Ionization of acids yields hydrogen ions, thus these compounds act as proton donors. Similarly, some bases like lithium hydroxide (LiOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) too completely dissociate into their ions in an aqueous medium. These bases are termed as strong bases.