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2021-05-14

Which best describes the outcome of DNA replication the new DNA molecule is identical?

Which best describes the outcome of DNA replication the new DNA molecule is identical?

Answer: The answer is A (The new DNA molecule is identical to the original DNA.)

What is the result of DNA replication quizlet?

The outcome of DNA replication is two DNA nearly identical DNA double helix molecules. Each DNA is made up of one DNA strand from the original DNA and a newly created strand.

What is the main goal of DNA replication?

The goal of replication is to produce a second and identical double strand. Because each of the two strands in the dsDNA molecule serves as a template for a new DNA strand, the first step in DNA replication is to separate the dsDNA. This is accomplished by a DNA helicase.

What statement describes a step in DNA replication?

The double helix unwinds and each strand forms a template for a new strand. The paired bases release many types of proteins. The DNA is cut into pieces using polymerase enzymes.

Where and when specifically does DNA replication occur?

DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the nucleus of eukaryotes. Regardless of where DNA replication occurs, the basic process is the same. The structure of DNA lends itself easily to DNA replication. Each side of the double helix runs in opposite (anti-parallel) directions.

In which stage does DNA replication occur?

The division cycle of most eukaryotic cells is divided into four discrete phases: M, G1, S, and G2. M phase (mitosis) is usually followed by cytokinesis. S phase is the period during which DNA replication occurs.

What is the difference between topoisomerase 1 and 2?

The main difference between Topoisomerase I and II is that topoisomerase I cut one strand of the DNA double helix whereas topoisomerase II cut both strands of the DNA double helix. Topoisomerase I and II are two classes of enzymes responsible for fixing the topological problems associated with the DNA double helix.

Which topoisomerase is relevant in DNA replication?

Type II topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes that are required for proper chromosome structure and segregation and play important roles in DNA replication, transcription, and recombination.

What is the role of gyrase in DNA replication?

DNA gyrase is an essential bacterial enzyme that catalyzes negative supercoiling of plasmid and chromosomal DNA. In the supercoiled state, DNA adopts a branched and interwound conformation that allows the large chromosome to function in the highly constrained space of a bacterial cell.

What is the function of DNA polymerase III in DNA replication?

The main function of the third polymerase, Pol III, is duplication of the chromosomal DNA, while other DNA polymerases are involved mostly in DNA repair and translesion DNA synthesis. Together with a DNA helicase and a primase, Pol III HE participates in the replicative apparatus that acts at the replication fork.

What relieves torque in DNA replication?

Enzymes involved in DNA replication are: Helicase (unwinds the DNA double helix) Gyrase (relieves the buildup of torque during unwinding)

Is gyrase found in eukaryotes?

Gyrase is present in prokaryotes and some eukaryotes, but the enzymes are not entirely similar in structure or sequence, and have different affinities for different molecules. By binding to the enzyme they trap it on a transient step of a catalytic cycle preventing the reunion of a G-segment.

What is a major difference between eukaryotic DNA replication and prokaryotic DNA replication?

Prokaryotic Replication vs Eukaryotic Replication

Prokaryotic Replication Eukaryotic Replication
It is a continuous process. This process occurs in the S-phase of cell cycle.
Circular, double-stranded DNA Linear, double-stranded DNA with end
The DNA replicates in the cytoplasm The DNA replicates in the nucleus

Which drug interfere with DNA synthesis?

Quinolones

Does penicillin inhibit DNA gyrase?

Many antibiotics, including penicillin, work by attacking the cell wall of bacteria. Other antibiotics prevent successful DNA replication in bacteria. A class of antimicrobials called quinolones targets DNA gyrase, an important enzyme that helps unwind DNA for replication.

Why are human cells not affected by penicillin?

Penicillin interferes with the bacterial cell wall formation and prevents the cell wall from being formed, thereby killing the bacteria. Human cells do not have cell wall and hence do not get affected.

What drugs inhibit DNA gyrase?

Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed a 10-fold reduction in efficacy against M. smegmatis compared with E. coli gyrase. We have also shown that etoposide, an antineoplastic drug, inhibits DNA gyrase activity by trapping the gyrase–DNA complex.

What do you know about penicillin?

Penicillins are the class of antibiotics most frequently prescribed for children worldwide and they remain the first-line therapy for a range of infections. Penicillins are bactericidal antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis by targeting penicillin-binding proteins.

What diseases does penicillin cure?

Penicillin V potassium is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections, scarlet fever, and ear, skin, gum, mouth, and throat infections.

What are the most common side effects of penicillin?

The most common reactions to oral penicillin are nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhea, and black hairy tongue….Common side effects may include:

  • mild diarrhea;
  • headache;
  • black or hairy tongue; or.
  • pain, swelling, bruising, or irritation around the IV needle.

What antibiotics should you avoid if you are allergic to penicillin?

Patients with symptoms suggestive of a Type I allergy should avoid cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics for mild or moderate infections when a suitable alternative exists.

What does penicillin do to the body?

Penicillin prevents the bacteria from synthesizing peptidoglycan, a molecule in the cell wall that provides the wall with the strength it needs to survive in the human body. The drug greatly weakens the cell wall and causes bacteria to die, allowing a person to recover from a bacterial infection.

Does penicillin have any side effects?

You may experience side effects of penicillin — as happens with other medications — that are not an allergic reaction to the drug. Depending on the type of penicillin, common side effects may include mild nausea or diarrhea, headache, or vaginal itching.