Where do electrons get their energy in the light reactions?
Answer: The energy of light captured by pigment molecules, called chlorophylls, in chloroplasts is used to generate high-energy electrons with great reducing potential. These electrons are used to produce NADPH as well as ATP in a series of reactions called the light reactions because they require light.
Where does the energy come from to make ATP in the light reactions?
The Light Reactions of Photosynthesis. Light is absorbed and the energy is used to drive electrons from water to generate NADPH and to drive protons across a membrane. These protons return through ATP synthase to make ATP.
Where do electrons come from in photosynthesis?
In (a) photosystem II, the electron comes from the splitting of water, which releases oxygen as a waste product. In (b) photosystem I, the electron comes from the chloroplast electron transport chain. The two photosystems absorb light energy through proteins containing pigments, such as chlorophyll.
What roles do ADP and ATP play in the light dependent and light independent reactions?
Light-dependent reaction: ADP combines with phosphate to form ATP. ATP provides energy when the cells construct organic compounds using carbon dioxide and water during light-independent reactions. Eventually, these organic compounds become sugar.
How is ATP used in the light-independent reactions?
The light-independent reactions use the ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to reduce carbon dioxide and convert the energy to the chemical bond energy in carbohydrates such as glucose.
What is used in light-independent reactions?
Oxygenic photosynthesis is composed of two stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions. The light-independent reactions use the ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to reduce carbon dioxide and convert the energy to the chemical bond energy in carbohydrates such as glucose
What is another name for a light-independent reaction?
What are light-dependent and independent reactions?
In the light-dependent reactions, energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and that energy is converted into stored chemical energy. In the light-independent reactions, the chemical energy harvested during the light-dependent reactions drives the assembly of sugar molecules from carbon dioxide.
Is co2 involved in the light dependent reactions?
In light-independent reactions (the Calvin cycle), carbohydrate molecules are assembled from carbon dioxide using the chemical energy harvested during the light-dependent reactions.
What is the main product of the Calvin cycle?
The main products of the Calvin cycle are 6 PGAL molecules, which are turned into one glucose molecule and three RuBP molecules.
How many water molecules are produced in the Calvin cycle?
Six water molecules
How much ATP does the Calvin cycle produce?
G3P produced by the Calvin cycle is the raw material used to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates. The Calvin cycle uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH molecules to produce one glucose molecule.
What are the 3 phases of Calvin cycle?
The Calvin cycle reactions can be divided into three main stages: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of the starting molecule.
What is the correct ratio of ATP Utilisation in steps of Calvin cycle?
What is the correct ratio of ATP utilization in Reduction : Regeneration steps of calvin cycle ? Plzfast ! Note: To make 1 molecule of glucose, 6 turns of Calvin cycle should take place. Hence, total number of ATPs utilised in 6 steps of reduction and regeneration = 12 + 6 = 18 ATPs and the ratio will be 12: 6
What is the overall goal of the Calvin cycle?
The function of the Calvin cycle is to create three-carbon sugars, which can then be used to build other sugars such as glucose, starch, and cellulose that is used by plants as a structural building material. The Calvin cycle takes molecules of carbon straight out of the air and turns them into plant matter.
Why is the Calvin cycle so important?
The Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. Every living thing on Earth depends on the Calvin cycle. Plants depend on the Calvin cycle for energy and food.
Why is the Calvin cycle important for plants quizlet?
Molecule entering the calvin cycle. Becomes fixed in order to make G3P and regenerate RuBP. The calvin cycle is important because it produces food for autotrophs. 3 carbon molecule (From 6 carbon chain being cut) uses NADPH and ATP to generate G3P.
Is RuBP used in Calvin cycle?
The Calvin cycle reactions (Figure 5.15) can be organized into three basic stages: fixation, reduction, and regeneration. In the stroma, in addition to CO2, two other chemicals are present to initiate the Calvin cycle: an enzyme abbreviated RuBisCO, and the molecule ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP).
What is the output of the Calvin cycle?
In the case of the Calvin Cycle, the input molecules are carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH. The output molecules are sugar, ADP, NADP+, and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The recycled molecule is ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)
What is the input and output of light reactions?
|Light||Light Dependent Reactions||Chemical Energy|
|Carbon Dioxide||Light Independent Reactions||Fixed carbon (glucose) for growth or input into Storage Systems via Phloem component of Transport System|
|Water||Photolysis||Oxygen and protons|