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2021-05-14

Where are prominences located on the sun?

Where are prominences located on the sun?

Prominences are anchored to the Sun’s surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun’s hot outer atmosphere, called the corona. A prominence forms over timescales of about a day, and stable prominences may persist in the corona for several months, looping hundreds of thousands of miles into space.

What causes prominences on the sun?

Prominences are shaped by the Sun’s complex magnetic field, often forming loops with each end “anchored” to the Sun’s surface (photosphere). Prominences can last for several days – or up to several months! Some prominences erupt and break apart, giving rise to coronal mass ejections (CME).

Are solar prominences visible during a solar eclipse?

During total solar eclipses lasting only a few minutes, no motion is visible in the prominence shapes typically observed, but thanks to the advent of coronagraphs and spectroheliographs, we can actually create movies of the evolution of prominences at the solar limb even without the benefit of an eclipse!

What are solar flares and prominences?

A prominence is a bright, relatively dense, and relatively cool arched cloud of ionized gas in the chromosphere and corona of the Sun. A solar flare is a sudden, brief (typically lasting only a few minutes), and explosive release of solar magnetic energy that heats and accelerates the gas in the Sun’s atmosphere.

What is the difference between sunspots and solar flares?

Sunspots are areas that appear dark on the surface of the Sun. They appear dark because they are cooler than other parts of the Sun’s surface. Solar flares are a sudden explosion of energy caused by tangling, crossing or reorganizing of magnetic field lines near sunspots.

What is the difference between sunspots solar flares and prominences?

Sunspots are cooler and darker than the rest of the Sun’s surface. They are marked by intense magnetic activity. Solar prominences are the plasma loops that connect two sunspots. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are eruptions of highly energetic particles from the Sun’s surface.

What is the cause of sunspots flares and prominences?

What is the common cause of sunspots, flares, and prominences? The helium produced from the fusion of hydrogen has less mass than the hydrogen that goes into its formation. roughly 200,000km in radius, it is the sight of powerful nuclear fusion reactions that generate the sun’s enormous energy output.

What do sunspots solar prominences and solar flares all have in common?

What do sunspots, solar prominences, and solar flares all have in common? They are all strongly influenced by magnetic fields on the Sun. Coronal mass ejections and other activity associated with the sunspot cycle can disrupt radio communications and knock out sensitive electronic equipment.

What causes the cycle of solar activity?

The solar cycle affects activity on the surface of the Sun, such as sunspots which are caused by the Sun’s magnetic fields. Giant eruptions on the Sun, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, also increase during the solar cycle. These eruptions send powerful bursts of energy and material into space.

What would happen if a solar flare hit Earth?

The most powerful solar storms send coronal mass ejections (CMEs), containing charged particles, into space. If Earth happens to be in the path of a CME, the charged particles can slam into our atmosphere, disrupt satellites in orbit and even cause them to fail, and bathe high-flying airplanes with radiation.

How do sunspots affect the earth?

If sunspots are active, more solar flares will result creating an increase in geomagnetic storm activity for Earth. Therefore during sunspot maximums, the Earth will see an increase in the Northern and Southern Lights and a possible disruption in radio transmissions and power grids.

How do prominences affect Earth?

Prominences are associated with the release of high energy particles, known as a solar flare. If a prominence breaks apart, it produces a coronal mass ejection. The X-ray and UV radiation emitted in a solar flare, however, can penetrate the earth’s natural defenses.

What are prominences caused by?

Solar prominence, dense cloud of incandescent ionized gas projecting from the Sun’s chromosphere into the corona. Prominences sometimes extend hundreds of thousands of kilometres above the Sun’s chromosphere. Their causes are uncertain but probably involve magnetic forces.

Why do prominences occur?

Prominences are anchored to the Sun’s surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the solar corona. An erupting prominence occurs when such a structure becomes unstable and bursts outward, releasing the plasma.

Why do prominences look pink?

At eclipse the red Hα line lends a beautiful pink to the prominences visible at totality. The visible light emitted toward Earth at the limb has been removed from the upward beam, so the prominences appear dark against the disk.

What are Sun layers?

The inner layers are the Core, Radiative Zone and Convection Zone. The outer layers are the Photosphere, the Chromosphere, the Transition Region and the Corona.

What is Corona Eclipse?

The corona is the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere. The corona is usually hidden by the bright light of the Sun’s surface. During a total solar eclipse, the moon passes between Earth and the Sun. When this happens, the moon blocks out the bright light of the Sun.

What does the corona layer of the sun do?

The corona is the outer atmosphere of the Sun. It extends many thousands of kilometers (miles) above the visible “surface” of the Sun, gradually transforming into the solar wind that flows outward through our solar system. The material in the corona is an extremely hot but very tenuous plasma.

Why is the corona so hot?

The Sun’s sizzling corona is so hot thanks to tiny nanoflares, new evidence suggests. Our Sun’s outer atmosphere is mysteriously much hotter than its surface. One possible mechanism is nanoflares: tiny explosions on the solar surface that randomly occur and rapidly dissipate.

Why is the corona hotter than the sun?

The solar wind doesn’t slow down as it leaves the Sun — it speeds up. Some particles shoot out of the corona with so much energy that they approach the speed of light. And perhaps most baffling of all, the corona is hundreds of times hotter than the Sun’s surface.

What part of the sun is the coolest?

photosphere

What is Sun’s corona made of?

Corona, outermost region of the Sun’s atmosphere, consisting of plasma (hot ionized gas). It has a temperature of approximately two million kelvins and an extremely low density. The corona continually varies in size and shape as it is affected by the Sun’s magnetic field.

Why is photosphere cooler than Corona?

Scientists have found that small solar flare could help explain why the Sun’s atmosphere, the corona, is so much hotter than the surface. The corona is hundreds to thousands of times hotter than the Sun’s visible surface, the photosphere.

Why does the sun’s corona show emission lines?

The corona shines brightly in x-rays because of its high temperature. On the other hand, the “cool” solar photosphere emits very few x-rays. This allows us to view the corona across the disk of the Sun when we observe the Sun in X-rays.

How thick is the corona?

Core Radius of 150,000 km K
Convective Zone 200,000 km thick 500,000 K
Photosphere 500 km thick 5800 K
Chromosphere 10,000 km thick 4,000 to 400,000 K
Corona 5,000,000 km thick 1,000,000 K