What type of nucleic acid is DNA?
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Is DNA a lipid or protein?
Types of biological macromolecules
|Biological macromolecule||Building blocks||Examples|
|Lipids||Fatty acids and glycerol||Fats, phospholipids, waxes, oils, grease, steroids|
|Proteins||Amino acids||Keratin (found in hair and nails), hormones, enzymes, antibodies|
|Nucleic acids||Nucleotides||DNA, RNA|
What macromolecule group is DNA in?
Nucleic acids, macromolecules made out of units called nucleotides, come in two naturally occurring varieties: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
What are the 4 major biological macromolecules?
There are four major classes of biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), and each is an important component of the cell and performs a wide array of functions. Combined, these molecules make up the majority of a cell’s mass.
What is the 5 and 3 end of DNA?
3. Each DNA strand has two ends. The 5′ end of the DNA is the one with the terminal phosphate group on the 5′ carbon of the deoxyribose; the 3′ end is the one with a terminal hydroxyl (OH) group on the deoxyribose of the 3′ carbon of the deoxyribose.
Why are there 3 reading frames?
Genetic code During transcription, the RNA polymerase read the template DNA strand in the 3′→5′ direction, but the mRNA is formed in the 5′ to 3′ direction. The mRNA is single-stranded and therefore only contains three possible reading frames, of which only one is translated.
What are the 3 reading frames?
There are three possible reading frames in any sequence, depending on the starting point. If the first frame starts at position 1, the second frame starts at position 2, and the third frame starts at position 3.
What direction do we read DNA?
DNA is ‘read’ in a specific direction, just like letters and words in the English language are read from left to right. Each end of DNA molecule has a number. One end is referred to as 5′ (five prime) and the other end is referred to as 3′ (three prime).
What are the A P and E sites on the ribosome?
The A site accepts an incoming tRNA bound to an amino acid. The P site holds a tRNA that carries a growing polypeptide (the first amino acid added is methionine (Met)). The E site is where a tRNA goes after it is empty, meaning that it has transferred its polypeptide to another tRNA (which now occupies the P site).
What is a Anticodon?
An anticodon is a trinucleotide sequence complementary to that of a corresponding codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence. An anticodon is found at one end of a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule.
What are the main steps of translation?
Steps of Translation There are three major steps to translation: Initiation, Elongation, and Termination. The ribosome is made of two separate subunits: the small subunit and the large subunit.
What is the second step of translation?
In the second step, the amino acid is transferred to the 3´ CCA terminus of the acceptor tRNA and AMP is released. (more…) After being attached to tRNA, an amino acid is aligned on the mRNA template by complementary base pairing between the mRNA codon and the anticodon of the tRNA.
What is the end result of translation?
When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases the mRNA strand and amino acid sequence. The amino acid sequence is the final result of translation, and is known as a polypeptide.
How is RNA similar to DNA?
RNA is somewhat similar to DNA; they both are nucleic acids of nitrogen-containing bases joined by sugar-phosphate backbone. DNA has Thymine, where as RNA has Uracil. RNA nucleotides include sugar ribose, rather than the Deoxyribose that is part of DNA.
What are the two functions of tRNA?
All tRNAs have two functions: to be chemically linked to a particular amino acid and to base-pair with a codon in mRNA so that the amino acid can be added to a growing peptide chain. Each tRNA molecule is recognized by one and only one of the 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.