What makes the cell alive?
You can even ask yourself what it means for your entire body to be “living.” Your cells have metabolic enzymes that break down proteins, fats and sugars into energy packets that can be used to build and regulate the cells. Another key aspect of being “alive” is being able to reproduce.
What does it mean to be alive in biology?
Alive. 1. Having life, in opposition to dead; living; being in a state in which the organs perform their functions; as, an animal or a plant which is alive.
How do we know that cells are alive?
The most common way to identify dead cells is using a cell-impermeant DNA binding dye, such as propidium iodide or a dye from the STYOX series. A healthy living cell has an intact cell membrane and will act as a barrier to the dye so it cannot enter the cell.
Are cells alive Why or why not?
Single cell organisms like some algae or bacteria are very much alive. They are a little biochemical machines which is continuously using some type of energy from their environment to maintain their internal conditions which are necessary for their survival and allow their reproduction—so yes very much alive.
How is dsRNA formed?
Large ds RNA : double stranded RNA formed when complemantary DNA strands are transcribed into RNA ( symmetrical transcription from opposing promoters , these single stranded complementary RNAs base pair to form ds RNA ) , also by base pairing of complementary ssRNAs result from transposons and repetitive genes and …
Where is dsRNA found?
High molecular weight, fully double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been recognized as the genetic material of many plant, animal, fungal, and bacterial viruses (Diplornaviruses); virus- specific dsRNA is also found in cells infected with single-stranded RNA viruses.
How do you detect dsRNA?
Although dsRNA staining was primarily observed in the cytoplasm, it was also seen in the nucleus of cells infected with influenza A virus, Nyamanini virus, and MVM. Thus, it is likely that most animal virus infections produce dsRNA species that can be detected by immunofluorescence staining.
What is inside a virus’s protein coat?
Viral Capsids Are Regular Arrays of One or a Few Types of Protein. The nucleic acid of a virion is enclosed within a protein coat, or capsid, composed of multiple copies of one protein or a few different proteins, each of which is encoded by a single viral gene.
Can you have double stranded RNA?
Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ribonucleic acid. The positive-strand RNA may be used as messenger RNA (mRNA) which can be translated into viral proteins by the host cell’s ribosomes.
Why must dsRNA virus package an RNA polymerase RdRp inside their viral capsid?
Why must dsRNA viruses package an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inside their viral capsid? -Because all RNA viruses package an RdRp. -Because the (+) of RNA in their genome cannot function as mRNA. -Because the RdRp converts the RNA to DNA so it can be translated by host ribosomes.
Do all viruses have mRNA?
For some RNA viruses, the infecting RNA produces messenger RNA (mRNA). This is translation of the genome into protein products. For others with negative stranded RNA and DNA, viruses are produced by transcription then translation. The mRNA is used to instruct the host cell to make virus components.
What is the role of reverse transcriptase?
Abstract. Reverse transcriptase (RT), also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into DNA. This enzyme is able to synthesize a double helix DNA once the RNA has been reverse transcribed in a first step into a single-strand DNA.
Do humans have reverse transcriptase?
In cellular life They are found abundantly in the genomes of plants and animals. Telomerase is another reverse transcriptase found in many eukaryotes, including humans, which carries its own RNA template; this RNA is used as a template for DNA replication. In order to initiate synthesis of DNA, a primer is needed.