What is the sequence of translation?
Translation: Beginning, middle, and end Initiation (“beginning”): in this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin. Elongation (“middle”): in this stage, amino acids are brought to the ribosome by tRNAs and linked together to form a chain.
What are the steps of DNA translation?
Translation is a process by which the genetic code contained within a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is decoded to produce a specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. It occurs in the cytoplasm following transcription and, like transcription, has three stages: initiation, elongation and termination.
What is the correct order of the stages of translation?
Translation of an mRNA molecule by the ribosome occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
What does a sequence of DNA code for?
Genetic code, the sequence of nucleotides in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) that determines the amino acid sequence of proteins. Three adjacent nucleotides constitute a unit known as the codon, which codes for an amino acid.
What is a codon sequence?
A codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. The genetic code is described as degenerate, or redundant, because a single amino acid may be coded for by more than one codon. …
What does DNA contain the instructions for?
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce. To carry out these functions, DNA sequences must be converted into messages that can be used to produce proteins, which are the complex molecules that do most of the work in our bodies.
What does T pair with in DNA?
A with T: the purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T) C with G: the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with the purine guanine (G)
What is DNA short answer?
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. These instructions are found inside every cell, and are passed down from parents to their children.
In what direction is DNA read?
DNA is always synthesized in the 5′-to-3′ direction, meaning that nucleotides are added only to the 3′ end of the growing strand.
What is the 5 to 3 direction?
5′ – 3′ direction refers to the orientation of nucleotides of a single strand of DNA or RNA. Any single strand of DNA/RNA will always have an unbound 5′ phosphate at one end and an unbound 3′ hydroxyl group at the opposite end.
What is the 3 end of DNA?
3. Each DNA strand has two ends. The 5′ end of the DNA is the one with the terminal phosphate group on the 5′ carbon of the deoxyribose; the 3′ end is the one with a terminal hydroxyl (OH) group on the deoxyribose of the 3′ carbon of the deoxyribose.
Why does DNA replication occur in the 5 to 3 direction?
DNA replication goes in the 5′ to 3′ direction because DNA polymerase acts on the 3′-OH of the existing strand for adding free nucleotides.
Is the leading strand 5 to 3?
One new strand, which runs 5′ to 3′ towards the replication fork, is the easy one. This strand is made continuously, because the DNA polymerase is moving in the same direction as the replication fork. This continuously synthesized strand is called the leading strand.
How do you know which end is 3 and 5?
3′ end/5′ end: A nucleic acid strand is inherently directional, and the “5 prime end” has a free hydroxyl (or phosphate) on a 5′ carbon and the “3 prime end” has a free hydroxyl (or phosphate) on a 3′ carbon (carbon atoms in the sugar ring are numbered from 1′ to 5′).
Which structure is on the 3 end?
The 3′-end (three prime end) of a strand is so named due to it terminating at the hydroxyl group of the third carbon in the sugar-ring, and is known as the tail end.
Where is information stored in DNA?
Genetic information is stored in the sequence of bases along a nucleic acid chain. The bases have an additional special property: they form specific pairs with one another that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The base pairing results in the formation of a double helix, a helical structure consisting of two strands.
How much information is contained in DNA?
One gram of DNA can potentially hold up to 455 exabytes of data, according to the New Scientist. For reference: There are one billion gigabytes in an exabyte, and 1,000 exabytes in a zettabyte.
How is genetic code stored in DNA?
The Genetic Code is stored on one of the two strands of a DNA molecules as a linear, non-overlapping sequence of the nitrogenous bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). These are the “alphabet” of letters that are used to write the “code words”.
What are the two major steps in passing genetic information?
It consists of two major steps: transcription and translation. Together, transcription and translation are known as gene expression. During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene’s DNA is transferred to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus.
What is any change in the DNA sequence called?
DNA is a dynamic and adaptable molecule. As such, the nucleotide sequences found within it are subject to change as the result of a phenomenon called mutation.
What are 2 Functions of DNA?
DNA serves two important cellular functions: It is the genetic material passed from parent to offspring and it serves as the information to direct and regulate the construction of the proteins necessary for the cell to perform all of its functions.
What are the four main functions of DNA?
The sequence of the nucleotides along the backbone encodes genetic information. The four roles DNA plays are replication, encoding information, mutation/recombination and gene expression.
What is the primary job of DNA?
The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information. It is often compared to a blueprint, since it contains the instructions to construct other components of the cell, such as proteins and RNA molecules.