What is the most important concept in handling forensic blood specimens?
What is the most important concept in handling forensic blood specimens? Chain of custody.
Why is the morning specimen at the end of a 24 hour collection so important?
The first voided morning specimen is particularly valuable because it is more concentrated and abnormalities are easier to detect. An early morning specimen is also relatively free of dietary influences and changes due to physical activity.
What can you not do on a 24 hour urine collection?
DO NOT EAT the following foods for 72 hours prior to and during the collection period: avocados, bananas, butternuts, cantaloupe, dates, eggplant, grapefruit, hickory nuts, honeydew, kiwi fruit, melons, nuts, pecans, pineapple, plantain, plums, tomatoes, walnuts, or substances containing caffeine or nicotine.
When should a specimen be Analysed?
In general, specimens for determining the concentration of body constituents should be collected when the patient is in a basal state (ie, in the early morning after awakening and about 12 to 14 hours after the last ingestion of food).
Why is an early morning sample of urine?
First Morning Specimen This is the specimen of choice for urinalysis and microscopic analysis, since the urine is generally more concentrated (due to the length of time the urine is allowed to remain in the bladder) and, therefore, contains relatively higher levels of cellular elements and analytes such as protein, if …
How long can urine sit before being tested?
Storing a urine sample Do not keep it for longer than 24 hours. The bacteria in the urine sample can multiply if it is not kept in a fridge. If this happens, it could affect the test results.
What Colour should urine be in morning?
Morning is when your urine will be most concentrated. So, if your morning urine is a pale, straw color, you’re probably well hydrated and healthy. At bedtime, it should look as clear as water or at least pale yellow. If it doesn’t, you may need to boost your fluid intake.
Which urine is best for test?
Many companies recommend that you take your pregnancy test in the morning because first-morning urine typically contains the highest concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the pregnancy hormone.
Can you test positive in the morning and negative at night?
If you take a pregnancy test at night and it’s negative, you may still want to take another test in the morning or in a few days to help confirm that you’re not actually pregnant. There are a variety of factors that can contribute to a false negative: Taking medications.
Which time is best for urine test?
Generally, it doesn’t matter what time of day you collect a urine sample, but there are occasional exceptions. Your doctor may, for example, request a first morning sample because the urine is more concentrated and therefore it is more likely to show up any abnormalities.
What is the best time to take urine sample?
Within two hours is best. If possible, collect samples in the morning Mon-Friday so the sample can be taken to the surgery before 11am.
What happens to urine when it sits in a bottle?
The most simple answer is that the nitrogenous waste part of it, Urea, turns into ammonia,. Hence the strong urine smell then. However, in ancient Roman and even Medieval times, this was a valuable, sellable product. There were even collectors of this stale urine for commercial use.
How long does it take for a urine test to come back from the lab NHS?
For some more complex tests we need to send your urine sample off for laboratory testing at one of the local hospitals. In these instances it might take up to 5 days for results to come back to the practice.
Why has my urine sample been sent to the lab?
Doctors request a urine test to help diagnose and treat a range of conditions including kidney disorders, liver problems, diabetes and infections. Testing urine is also used to screen people for illicit drug use and to test if a woman is pregnant.
What is a positive urine test?
An increased number of WBCs seen in the urine under a microscope and/or positive test for leukocyte esterase may indicate an infection or inflammation somewhere in the urinary tract. If also seen with bacteria (see below), they indicate a likely urinary tract infection.
What are the normal results for urine tests in regards to?
Normal values are as follows:
- Color – Yellow (light/pale to dark/deep amber)
- Clarity/turbidity – Clear or cloudy.
- pH – 4.5-8.
- Specific gravity – 1.005-1.025.
- Glucose – ≤130 mg/d.
- Ketones – None.
- Nitrites – Negative.
- Leukocyte esterase – Negative.
What is a high bacteria count in urine?
What Is It? Bacterial colonization in urine is high when the level of bacterial counts is elevated— meaning the number of colonies of a single organism is higher than 100,000 per mL. If the bacteria level in your urine is high and it’s causing physical symptoms, you have a symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI).
What is the normal range for bacteria in urine?
Urine is normally sterile. However, in the process of collecting the urine, some contamination from skin bacteria is frequent. For that reason, up to 10,000 colonies of bacteria/ml are considered normal. Greater than 100,000 colonies/ml represents urinary tract infection.
What kills E coli in bladder?
After a positive urinalysis, your doctor might prescribe Bactrim or Cipro, two antibiotics often used to treat UTIs caused by E. coli.
Why do I have E coli in my urine?
Urine contains fluids, salts and waste products but is sterile or free of bacteria, viruses and other disease-causing organisms. A UTI occurs when bacteria from another source, such as the nearby anus, gets into the urethra. The most common bacteria found to cause UTIs is Escherichia coli (E. coli).