What is the main function of the electron transport chain?
The electron transport chain is used to pump protons into the intermembrane space. This establishes a proton gradient, allowing protons to be pumped through ATP synthase in order to create ATP. This method of ATP production is called oxidative phosphorylation.
What is the relationship between the ETC and oxygen quizlet?
What is the relationship between the ETC and oxygen? The relationship between the two is that ETC allows cytochrome to pass into it’s final acceptor oxygen.
What is oxygen used for in cellular respiration quizlet?
oxygen is important in cellular respiration because it is used to help harvest energy from food molecules. Oxidative phosphorylation uses it directly and it becomes water after it accepts electrons.
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration quizlet?
Photosynthesis makes the glucose that is used in cellular respiration to make ATP. The glucose is then turned back into carbon dioxide, which is used in photosynthesis. While water is broken down to form oxygen during photosynthesis, in cellular respiration oxygen is combined with hydrogen to form water.
What is the connection between the electron transport chain and ATP?
The process of forming ATP from the electron transport chain is known as oxidative phosphorylation. Electrons carried by NADH + H+ and FADH2 are transferred to oxygen via a series of electron carriers, and ATPs are formed. Three ATPs are formed from each NADH + H+, and two ATPs are formed for each FADH2 in eukaryotes.
What is the function of ATP synthase in the electron transport chain?
During electron transport, the participating protein complexes push protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space. This creates a concentration gradient of protons that another protein complex, called ATP synthase, uses to power synthesis of the energy carrier molecule ATP (Figure 2).
Is any ATP used in the electron transport chain?
No ATP is produced in the electron transport chain. Is any ATP used in the electron transport chain? No, the electrons provide energy. The name of the embedded protein that provides a channel for the hydrogen ions to pass through the membrane is ATP synthase.
What is the electron transport chain also known as?
The respiratory chain, otherwise known as the electron transport chain, resides in the mitochondria. The chain consists of a series of electron carriers which can accept and then donate electrons, while the resulting production of energy is used to stimulate the formation of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
What is the electron transport chain and why is it important?
The electron transport chain is a system of molecules through which electrons are transferred to generate ATP. It has an important role in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Is NADH an electron carrier?
NAD+ is the primary electron carrier used during cellular respiration, with FAD participating in just one (or two sometimes two) reactions. The oxidized form of the electron carrier (NAD+) is shown on the left and the reduced form (NADH) is shown on the right.
What are the components of electron transport chain?
The components of the chain include FMN, Fe–S centers, coenzyme Q, and a series of cytochromes (b, c1, c, and aa3). The energy derived from the transfer of electrons through the electron transport chain is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane from the matrix to the cytosolic side.
Why are the components of the electron transport chain embedded?
Why are the components of the electron transport chain embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane rather than floating freely in the cytoplasm of mitochondrial matrix? To generate and maintain the proton gradient essential for ATP production.
What is the starting point of electron transport chain?
To start, two electrons are carried to the first complex aboard NADH. This complex, labeled I, is composed of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and an iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing protein.
Is NADP+ an electron carrier?
NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. NADP+ is created in anabolic reactions, or reaction that build large molecules from small molecules.
Does the electron transport chain require oxygen?
The electron transport chain (Figure 1) is the last component of aerobic respiration and is the only part of glucose metabolism that uses atmospheric oxygen. Note, however, that the electron transport chain of prokaryotes may not require oxygen as some live in anaerobic conditions.
Is acetyl CoA an electron carrier?
The NADH and FADH2 are electron carriers that can be used by the electron transport chain (ETC). In the first step of the citric acid cycle, acetyl CoA (a two-carbon molecule) and oxaloacetate (a four-carbon molecule) are combined to form citrate (a six-carbon molecule).
How many electron carriers are produced in glycolysis?
There are three steps in cellular respiration: Glycolysis, which makes two NADH from NAD+ The citric acid cycle, which makes six NADH and two FADH2 . These carriers bring their electrons to the electron transport chain, which creates a hydrogen ion gradient in intermembrane of the mitochondria.
What happens to pyruvate in the presence of oxygen?
In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is transformed into an acetyl group attached to a carrier molecule of coenzyme A. The resulting acetyl CoA can enter several pathways, but most often, the acetyl group is delivered to the citric acid cycle for further catabolism.
What is the role of acetyl CoA?
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.
Where does CoA come from?
Acetyl-CoA is a metabolite derived from glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate.
What are the three main sources of the acetyl CoA in the cell?
SOURCES OF ACETYL CoA
- Glycolysis of glucose.
- Oxidation of fatty acids.
- Amino acid deamination.
What is the formula of acetyl CoA?