What is the endoplasmic reticulum connected to?
The endoplasmic reticulum membrane allows molecules to be selectively transferred between the lumen and the cytoplasm, and since it is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, it further provides a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
What is the connection between DNA and rough ER?
The endoplasmic reticulum connects to the pores of the nuclear envelope. In this way, ribosomal subunits and mRNA transcribed off genes in the DNA can leave the nucleus, enter the endoplasmic reticulum, and participate in protein synthesis. There are two distinct regions of the ER: the rough ER and the smooth ER.
Is DNA Found in rough ER?
A eukaryotic cell is a cell that has its DNA in a distinct compartment from the cytoplasm of the cell due to a membrane; DNA is inside a nucleus. Nucleus – Contains DNA. Endoplasmic Reticulum – Split into smooth ER (SER) and rough ER (RER). It makes proteins and lipids.
What would happen if the endoplasmic reticulum was removed from a cell?
Without the RER the cell is not able to synthesis new plasma membrane proteins, lysosomal enzymes, proteines for the Golgi apparatus and proteins for extracellular secretion. Because these kind of proteins are synthesised in the RER. In the absence of these cellular mechanisms the cell would probably die.
What diseases are caused by the endoplasmic reticulum?
There is accumulating evidence implicating prolonged ER stress in the development and progression of many diseases, including neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, and cancer.
What would happen if a cell didn’t have mitochondria?
Without mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion), higher animals would likely not exist because their cells would only be able to obtain energy from anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen), a process much less efficient than aerobic respiration.