What is meant by translation in biology?
Translation is the process by which a protein is synthesized from the information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA). Translation occurs in a structure called the ribosome, which is a factory for the synthesis of proteins. …
What happens during translation in biology?
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded in a ribosome, outside the nucleus, to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell.
What is translation and transcription?
Transcription and translation take the information in DNA and use it to produce proteins. Transcription uses a strand of DNA as a template to build a molecule called RNA. During translation, the RNA molecule created in the transcription process delivers information from the DNA to the protein-building machines.
What is the order of translation?
Translation: Beginning, middle, and end Translation has pretty much the same three parts, but they have fancier names: initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation (“beginning”): in this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin.
What are the 3 steps of transcription?
Transcription takes place in three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. The steps are illustrated in Figure 2.
What is a DNA template?
The term template strand refers to the sequence of DNA that is copied during the synthesis of mRNA.
What is transcription in writing?
Transcription is the process in which speech or audio is converted into a written document. Closed captions are time-coded to the video, while a transcript is just the text with no time information.
What is the point of translation?
Translation is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. The genetic code describes the relationship between the sequence of base pairs in a gene and the corresponding amino acid sequence that it encodes.
What is transcription in biology and where does it occur?
Transcription takes place in the nucleus. It uses DNA as a template to make an RNA molecule. RNA then leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, where translation occurs. Translation reads the genetic code in mRNA and makes a protein.
What is transcription in biology simple definition?
Definitions. Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence. This copy, called a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, leaves the cell nucleus and enters the cytoplasm, where it directs the synthesis of the protein, which it encodes.
Where does DNA translation occur?
How does DNA translation work?
Translation is the process that takes the information passed from DNA as messenger RNA and turns it into a series of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. The ribosome moves along the mRNA, matching 3 base pairs at a time and adding the amino acids to the polypeptide chain.
Is DNA directly involved in translation?
However, DNA is not directly involved in the translation process, instead mRNA is transcribed into a sequence of amino acids.
What two places in the cell can translation occur?
In eukaryotes, transcription and translation take place in different cellular compartments: transcription takes place in the membrane-bounded nucleus, whereas translation takes place outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, the two processes are closely coupled (Figure 28.15).
Where does translation occur in eukaryotes?
How ribosomes are formed?
The formation of eukaryotic ribosomes is a complex process that starts with transcription of a large precursor RNA that assembles into a large 90S preribosome, which matures to finally give the 40S small subunit of the ribosome.
What are Anticodons?
An anticodon is a trinucleotide sequence complementary to that of a corresponding codon in a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence. An anticodon is found at one end of a transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule.
How are Anticodons read?
Since codons in mRNA are read in the 5′ → 3′direction, anticodons are oriented in the 3′ → 5′ direction, as Figure 3-19 shows. Each tRNA is specific for only one amino acid and carries that amino acid attached at its free 3′ end.
What do Anticodons pair with?
An anticodon is the three-base sequence, paired with a specific amino acid, that a tRNA molecule brings to the corresponding codon of the mRNA during translation. The anticodon sequence is complementary to the mRNA, using base pairs in the anti-parallel direction.