What is lithium used to treat?
About lithium Lithium is a type of medicine known as a mood stabiliser. It’s used to treat mood disorders such as: mania (feeling highly excited, overactive or distracted) hypo-mania (similar to mania, but less severe)
Does lithium prevent manic episodes?
Lithium helps reduce the severity and frequency of mania. It may also help relieve or prevent bipolar depression. Studies show that lithium can significantly reduce suicide risk. Lithium also helps prevent future manic and depressive episodes.
How does lithium treat depression?
Lithium increases the amount of certain chemicals in your brain which help to balance mood. Some researchers believe that using lithium helps strengthen the nerve connections in your brain that control your mood because of proteins it contains.
What is the mechanism of action of lithium?
Lithium acutely stimulates the NMDA receptor, increasing glutamate availability in the postsynaptic neuron. After chronic administration, lithium induces NMDA downregulation, this way lithium modulates glutamate neurotransmission.
How does lithium affect the brain?
Lithium also increases brain concentrations of the neuronal markers n-acetyl-aspartate and myoinositol. Lithium also remarkably protects neurons against glutamate, seizures, and apoptosis due to a wide variety of neurotoxins. The effective dose range for lithium is 0.6-1.0 mM in serum and >1.5 mM may be toxic.
Does lithium shorten life expectancy?
Investigating this, Cipriani et al. included eight RCTs with 782 patients and found a reduction in all-cause mortality in the lithium group of 2.31% over an average of around 81.5 weeks (Absolute risk: 5/392 (1.28%) vs.
Is Lithium a bad drug?
Lithium may also cause irregular heartbeat, drying and thinning of hair, alopecia, dry mouth, weight gain, itchiness, and other side effects. Long-term use may lead to kidney disease, high blood calcium levels, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, or other thyroid problems..
What are the long term side effects of lithium?
Over the long term, lithium can cause the thyroid gland to grow (goiter) or, less often, to become underactive (hypothyroidism), which is more likely to occur in women over age 45. It can also adversely affect kidney and cardiovascular function.
Can lithium cause memory problems?
Lithium has been associated with impaired memory, word finding difficulties, and impaired recall. Often, my patients have reported a cognitive “dulling” and a loss of cognitive “creativity” with lithium use that they found most disturbing. This does appear to be dose related.
Is bipolar linked to dementia?
We found that a history of bipolar disorder significantly increases the risk of dementia in older adults. Our results provide robust evidence that mood disorders in general, and not only major depressive disorders, are associated with increased risk of dementia (17,18).
Does lithium cause dementia?
One study suggested an increasing risk of dementia with increasing numbers of lithium prescriptions,7 whereas the other study found that patients receiving long-term lithium therapy had decreased prevalence of Alzheimer disease compared with patients not receiving recent lithium therapy.
Does lithium protect against dementia?
Conclusions: Continued treatment with lithium was associated with a reduced rate of dementia in patients with bipolar disorder in contrast to continued treatment with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics.
What foods interact with lithium?
Patients should be advised about eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice as it could require dose adjustment to avoid drug toxicity. Table salt. Lithium is a salt, and less table salt intake could cause lithium levels to rise and vice versa.