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2021-05-14

What is initiation elongation and termination in translation?

What is initiation elongation and termination in translation?

Initiation of translation occurs when mRNA, tRNA, and an amino acid meet up inside the ribosome. During elongation, amino acids are continually added to the line, forming a long chain bound together by peptide bonds. Once a stop codon reaches the ribosome, translation stops, or terminates.

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What do tRNA molecules do during translation?

Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein. tRNAs function at specific sites in the ribosome during translation, which is a process that synthesizes a protein from an mRNA molecule.

What is the importance of tRNA molecules?

The purpose of transfer RNA, or tRNA, is to bring amino acids to the ribosome for protein production. To make sure that the amino acids are added to the protein in a specific order, the tRNA reads the codons from the messenger RNA or mRNA.

How many GTP are hydrolyzed for each additional amino acid that is added during the elongation of a polypeptide during translation?

Thus, generally one GTP is hydrolyzed by EF-Tu per aminoacyl-tRNA bound and peptide bond formed, and more than one GTP is hydrolyzed only when a particular mRNA sequence, such as a homopolymeric stretch, is translated.

Which is the first step of translation?

Translation is generally divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination (Figure 7.8). In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes the first step of the initiation stage is the binding of a specific initiator methionyl tRNA and the mRNA to the small ribosomal subunit.

Which step of translation does not require energy?

So, the correct answer is ‘Peptidyl transferase reaction’.

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Which steps of translation requires energy?

The first step in elongation is the entry of the next aminoacyl-tRNA (aa2- tRNAaa2), which requires the free energy of GTP hydrolysis. The energy is supplied by the hydrolysis of GTP bound elongation factor 2 (EF2-GTP).

Which type of translation does not consume a high energy phosphate bond?

A peptide bond is formed between COOH group of the t-RNA at P-site and NH, group of aminoacyl t-RNA. This is facilitated by the enzyme peptidyl transferase and does not require high energy phosphate bonds.

What is role of DNA in protein synthesis?

DNA is the primary genetic material contained within your cells and in nearly all organisms. It’s used to create proteins during protein synthesis, which is a multi-step process that takes the coded message of DNA and converts it into a usable protein molecule.

What is the function of ribosomes in protein synthesis?

The ribosome is universally responsible for synthesizing proteins by translating the genetic code transcribed in mRNA into an amino acid sequence. Ribosomes use cellular accessory proteins, soluble transfer RNAs, and metabolic energy to accomplish the initiation, elongation, and termination of peptide synthesis.

Which enzyme is involved in protein synthesis?

RNA polymerase

What is correct for protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis is the process in which cells make proteins. It occurs in two stages: transcription and translation. Transcription is the transfer of genetic instructions in DNA to mRNA in the nucleus. It includes three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination.

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Which organelle is responsible for protein synthesis?

ribosomes

Where is the synthesis of proteins?

What organelle is responsible for releasing energy?

Mitochondria

Which organelle is responsible for protein synthesis quizlet?

Ribosomes

What is the site of protein synthesis in the cell quizlet?

Ribosomes use the information in mRNA to direct the synthesis of a protein. Carries amino acids. Large RNA-protein complexes that are composed of two subunits, often bound to ER, and are the sites of protein synthesis.

Which of the following is the site of protein synthesis quizlet?

1. Ribosomes are the place where Protein Synthesis takes place. 2. In the Ribosome, the mRNA, tRNA, and Amino Acids meet to form a Protein.

What is the correct sequence of protein synthesis in a cell quizlet?

which correctly describes the process of protein synthesis? The protein sequence is transcribed from a strand of RNA in the nucleus and is then translated into a sequence of amino acids on a ribosome in the cytoplasm.