What is deductive logic in research?
Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a “top-down” approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that we can test.
What are some examples of deductive reasoning?
Examples of deductive logic:
- All men are mortal. Joe is a man. Therefore Joe is mortal.
- Bachelors are unmarried men. Bill is unmarried. Therefore, Bill is a bachelor.
- To get a Bachelor’s degree at Utah Sate University, a student must have 120 credits. Sally has more than 130 credits.
What is deductive logical thinking?
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions.
What is inductive and deductive logic?
Deductive reasoning is the process of reasoning from the general to the specific. Inductive reasoning is the process of reasoning from the specific to the general. Inductive reasoning is supported by inductive logic, for example: From specific propositions such as: This raven is a black bird.
What is the logical difference between inductive and deductive argument?
Deductive reasoning moves from generalized statement to a valid conclusion, whereas Inductive reasoning moves from specific observation to a generalization. In deductive reasoning, the conclusions are certain, whereas, in Inductive reasoning, the conclusions are probabilistic.
Is deductive reasoning based on logic?
Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. Deductive reasoning is sometimes referred to as top-down logic. Deductive reasoning relies on making logical premises and basing a conclusion around those premises.
What is the problem with induction?
The problem of induction is to find a way to avoid this conclusion, despite Hume’s argument. Thus, it is the imagination which is taken to be responsible for underpinning the inductive inference, rather than reason.
How reliable is deductive reasoning?
The reliability of deductive reasoning While deductive reasoning is considered a reliable form of testing, it’s important to recognize it may sometimes lead to a false conclusion. This generally occurs when one of the first assumptive statements is false.
What is an example of a valid deductive argument?
In a valid deductive argument, if the premises are true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be false. That example with dogs, snakes, and birds is valid, because the reasoning works. If those premises were true, the conclusion would necessarily follow.
Is deductive conclusion always true?
With deductive reasoning, the conclusion is necessarily true if the premises are true. With inductive reasoning, the conclusion might be true, and it has some support, but it may nonetheless be false.
Can a deductive argument have a false conclusion?
A valid deductive argument can have all false premises and a false conclusion.
What do we call a conclusion which arrived at by inductive reasoning?
A conclusion you reach using inductive reasoning is called a conjecture . Examining several specific situations to arrive at a conjecture is called inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is different than proof. It can be used to make predictions, but it should never be used to make certain claims.
Why is the conclusion valid or invalid?
Valid: an argument is valid if and only if it is necessary that if all of the premises are true, then the conclusion is true; if all the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true; it is impossible that all the premises are true and the conclusion is false. If this is possible, the argument is invalid.
What makes a conclusion sound and valid?
A deductive argument is said to be valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false. In effect, an argument is valid if the truth of the premises logically guarantees the truth of the conclusion. …