What does mRNA do after transcription?
After the transcription of DNA to mRNA is complete, translation — or the reading of these mRNAs to make proteins — begins. Recall that mRNA molecules are single stranded, and the order of their bases — A, U, C, and G — is complementary to that in specific portions of the cell’s DNA.
Where does the mRNA need to go?
Where Translation Occurs. Within all cells, the translation machinery resides within a specialized organelle called the ribosome. In eukaryotes, mature mRNA molecules must leave the nucleus and travel to the cytoplasm, where the ribosomes are located.
Where does mRNA travel once made?
Through a process known as transcription, an RNA copy of a DNA sequence for creating a given protein is made. This copy – mRNA – travels from the nucleus of the cell to the part of the cell known as the cytoplasm, which houses ribosomes.
What is the role of mRNA Where does it go next for translation?
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded in a ribosome, outside the nucleus, to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell.
What are the 3 stages of translation?
Translation of an mRNA molecule by the ribosome occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
What does 3 prime and 5 Prime mean?
Each end of DNA molecule has a number. One end is referred to as 5′ (five prime) and the other end is referred to as 3′ (three prime). The 5′ and 3′ designations refer to the number of carbon atom in a deoxyribose sugar molecule to which a phosphate group bonds.
Why does RNA replace thymine with uracil?
The first three are the same as those found in DNA, but in RNA thymine is replaced by uracil as the base complementary to adenine. This base is also a pyrimidine and is very similar to thymine. Uracil is energetically less expensive to produce than thymine, which may account for its use in RNA.
Why is u used instead of T in RNA?
Properties. In RNA, uracil base-pairs with adenine and replaces thymine during DNA transcription. Methylation of uracil produces thymine. In DNA, the evolutionary substitution of thymine for uracil may have increased DNA stability and improved the efficiency of DNA replication (discussed below).
Is uracil more stable than thymine?
Explanation: DNA uses thymine instead of uracil because thymine has greater resistance to photochemical mutation, making the genetic message more stable. This is necessary for holding all of the information needed for life to function.
What does T pair with in RNA?
The four bases that make up this code are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). Bases pair off together in a double helix structure, these pairs being A and T, and C and G. RNA doesn’t contain thymine bases, replacing them with uracil bases (U), which pair to adenine1.
What is the base pairing rule for RNA?
DNA and RNA bases are also held together by chemical bonds and have specific base pairing rules. In DNA/RNA base pairing, adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U), and cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). The conversion of DNA to mRNA occurs when an RNA polymerase makes a complementary mRNA copy of a DNA “template” sequence.
Why are there equal amounts of A and T and G and C?
Adenine always binds with thymine, and cytosine always binds with guanine. Since certain bases always appear in pairs, they will have equal percentages of the DNA composition. The percentage of adenine will equal the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of cytosine will equal the percentage of guanine.
Why is adenine always pairs with thymine?
Adenine and Thymine also have a favorable configuration for their bonds. They both have to -OH/-NH groups which can form hydrogen bridges. When one pairs Adenine with Cytosine, the various groups are in each others way. For them to bond with each other would be chemically unfavorable.
What does adenine pair up with?
The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases, with adenine forming a base pair with thymine, and cytosine forming a base pair with guanine.
Does adenine go with thymine?
Adenine always pairs with thymine, and cytosine always pairs with guanine.
What happens if adenine bonds with guanine?
Complementary Base Pairing The chemistry of the nitrogenous bases is really the key to the function of DNA. It allows something called complementary base pairing. You see, cytosine can form three hydrogen bonds with guanine, and adenine can form two hydrogen bonds with thymine.
What does cytosine always pair with?
In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.