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2021-05-14

What are the three types of seismic waves produced by an earthquake?

What are the three types of seismic waves produced by an earthquake?

There are three basic types of seismic waves – P-waves, S-waves and surface waves. P-waves and S-waves are sometimes collectively called body waves.

What are the three types of earthquake waves Class 7?

1. P waves or longitudinal waves 2. S waves or transverse waves 3. L waves or surface waves.

  • P waves or longitudinal waves.
  • S waves or transverse waves.
  • L waves or surface waves.

What are the two types of seismic waves?

There are two broad classes of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel within the body of Earth. They include P, or primary, waves and S, or secondary, waves.

How do you identify P and S waves on a seismograph?

The P wave will be the first wiggle that is bigger than the rest of the little ones (the microseisms). Because P waves are the fastest seismic waves, they will usually be the first ones that your seismograph records. The next set of seismic waves on your seismogram will be the S waves.

What is the time difference between P and S waves?

Wave Speeds P waves travel at speeds between 1 and 14 km per second, while S waves travel significantly slower, between 1 and 8 km per second. The S waves are the second wave to reach a seismic station measuring a disturbance. The difference in arrival times helps geologists determine the location of the earthquake.

What is the interval between the P and S waves?

S waves are indicated by an abrupt change in wave amplitude. In the seismogram below, we see that the S wave arrived at about 34 sec after the P wave arrived. This time difference is called the S-P interval and is the lag time between the P and S wave.

What is the relationship between P and S waves?

Difference between s waves and p waves

P waves S waves
The first wave to hit seismographs Second waves to hit seismographs
They are compression waves They are shear waves
Can move through solids and liquids Can only move through solids

What happens to the time difference between primary and secondary waves as the distance gets longer?

What happens to the times difference between primary and secondary waves as the distance traveled gets longer? The time differences become bigger. Suppose a primary and secondary wave both travel a distance of 4,000 km before they are picked up by a seismograph.

Which type of seismic wave causes the most destruction to property?

surface waves

Why do surface waves cause the most damage to property?

Surface waves are slower than body waves. It is the surface waves which cause most property damage because surface waves produce more ground movement and travel more slowly, so they take longer to pass.

What wave causes the most damage?

Surface waves

What are the P S and surface waves?

Earth Observatory of Singapore Body waves are of two types: Primary waves (also called P-waves, or pressure waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves, or shear waves). P-waves are compression waves. They can propagate in solid or liquid material. S-waves are shear waves. They only propagate in solid material.

What do P and S waves have in common?

P (Primary) and S (Secondary) Waves are Body Waves often associated with Seismic Waves as in Earthquakes. Both Body Waves and Surfaces waves comprise an earthquake, but the body waves arrive first.

What are the characteristics that both P waves and S waves share?

In spite of these differences, P and S waves share two properties: The velocity of P and S waves is directly related (def) to the density of the the rock through which they travel. For example, the velocity for a P wave in granite is 5.5 km/sec; whereas the velocity for a P wave in water is 1.5 km/sec.

Which of the following is the difference between P and S waves?

P and S waves travel through liquids, but P waves do not travel through solids. P waves travel through solids, whereas S waves do not. The arrival time of any wave is based upon its speed. S waves are faster, so they “catch up” to P waves with increasing distance from the epicenter.

What are characteristics of S waves?

S-waves are shear waves (though that is not what the S stands for). They move by material flexing or deforming sideways (shearing) from the direction of wave travel, and then returning to the original shape once the wave passes.

What do you mean by P waves and S waves?

P-waves are compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation. On the other hand, S-waves are shear waves, which means that the motion of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. The energy is thus less easily transmitted through the medium, and S-waves are slower.

Where are S waves detected?

S-waves are not detected on the opposite side of the Earth – this suggests that the mantle has solid properties, but the outer core must be liquid. P-waves are detected on the opposite side of the Earth. Refractions between layers cause two shadow zones where no P-waves are detected.

How do you find P waves and S waves?

Measure the distance between the first P wave and the first S wave. In this case, the first P and S waves are 24 seconds apart. Find the point for 24 seconds on the left side of the chart below and mark that point. According to the chart, this earthquake’s epicenter was 215 kilometers away.

How do you find P and S wave travel time?

To get the travel time for either wave for a certain distance, move upward from the given distance until it intersects the correct seismic line. At this intersection point, read over to the Travel Time axis. For example, a P-wave traveling 7200 km would take a travel time of 10:40 (10 min. 40 sec.) to go this distance.

How do P waves move?

P waves travel through rock the same way that sound waves do through air. That is, they move as pressure waves. When a pressure wave passes a certain point, the material it is passing through moves forward, then back, along the same path that the wave is traveling. P waves can travel through solids, liquids and gases.

What are the differences between P waves and S waves and surface waves quizlet?

What are the differences between P waves, S waves, and surface waves? P waves are the fastest and have the lowest amplitudes; S waves are the second fastest and have the second lowest amplitudes; surface waves are the slowest and have the highest amplitudes.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between P waves and S waves?

Answer Expert Verified. The answer is; The farther away the P and S waves are on a seismogram, the further the epicenter. P-waves always arrive first to S-waves because they are faster. P-waves are compressional waves, unlike S-waves which are shear waves.

What type of earthquake wave causes the greatest damage quizlet?

Primary waves travel in a push/pull or compression/expansion type of motion, while secondary wave travel in as transverse waves in an up/down type of motion. Surface waves make the rock particles travel in a circle/elliptical motion. Of all the three waves, surface waves cause the most damage.

Which wave causes the most damage to buildings quizlet?

S- waves can…

  • travel only through solids only.
  • make rocks vibrate up, down, or sideways.
  • travel at about 4.5 km/s.
  • cause the most damage in buildings and structures.

What zone on earth has the greatest amount of seismic activity?

circum-Pacific belt

Where does the most seismic activity occur?

Where do earthquakes occur?

  • The world’s greatest earthquake belt, the circum-Pacific seismic belt, is found along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, where about 81 percent of our planet’s largest earthquakes occur.
  • The Alpide earthquake belt extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.