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2021-06-17

What are the physical and chemical properties of alcohol?

What are the physical and chemical properties of alcohol?

Physical Properties of Alcohol

  • The Boiling Point of Alcohols. Alcohols generally have higher boiling points in comparison to other hydrocarbons having equal molecular masses.
  • Solubility of Alcohols. The solubility of alcohol in water is governed by the hydroxyl group present.
  • The Acidity of Alcohols.

What are the physical and chemical properties of alcohols and phenols?

Physical state Alcohols : Lower alcohols are colourless liquids at normal temperature. The higher alcohols are colourless, odourless waxy solids. Phenols : Phenols, like alcohols, are either colourless liquids or solids. But they usually turn reddish brown due to atmospheric oxidation.

What accounts for the similar physical properties of alcohol?

Water and alcohols have similar properties because water molecules contain hydroxyl groups that can form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and with alcohol molecules, and likewise alcohol molecules can form hydrogen bonds with other alcohol molecules as well as with water.

Do alcohol and ether have the same physical and chemical properties?

Ethers exhibit a wide range of physical and chemical properties. The boiling point of ethers is comparable to the alkanes. However, it is much lower than that of alcohols of comparable molecular mass despite the polarity of the C-O bond. The miscibility of ethers with water is on the same lines as that of alcohols.

What are the properties of alcohol and ethers?

Ethers are similar in structure to alcohols, and both ethers and alcohols are similar in structure to water. In an alcohol one hydrogen atom of a water molecule is replaced by an alkyl group, whereas in an ether both hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

What are the physical and chemical properties of phenol?

Physical properties of Phenols

  • Phenols are colourless liquids or crystalline solids but become coloured due to slow oxidation with air.
  • Due to the presence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding, phenols have a higher boiling point than the corresponding hydrocarbon or aryl halides.

What are the chemical properties of phenol?

Phenols are similar to alcohols but form stronger hydrogen bonds. Thus, they are more soluble in water than are alcohols and have higher boiling points. Phenols occur either as colourless liquids or white solids at room temperature and may be highly toxic and caustic.

What are the physical properties of ethers?

Physical Properties of Ethers

  • An ether molecule has a net dipole moment due to the polarity of C-O bonds.
  • The boiling point of ethers is comparable to the alkanes but much lower than that of alcohols of comparable molecular mass despite the polarity of the C-O bond.
  • Ether molecules are miscible in water.

What is structure of phenol?

C6H6O

What is the symbol of phenol?

What is structure of cresol?

Author of Organic Chemistry and others. Alternative Title: methylphenol. Cresol (C7H8O), any of the three methylphenols with the same molecular formula but having different structures: ortho- (o-) cresol, meta- (m-) cresol, and para- (p-) cresol.

What happens when phenol is treated with NaOH?

When phenol reacts with NaOH (sodium hydroxide), sodium phenoxide is formed.

When phenol is treated with chloroform and NaOH?

When phenol C6H5OH is treated with CHCl3(chloroform) and NaOH(sodium hydroxide), there forms an aldehyde group (−CHO).

What happens when phenol reacts with Zn?

When phenol is heated with zn dust reduction of phenol occurs and it gets converted into Benzene with ZnO as a by-product. The O- thus formed accepts an electron from Zn and forms oxide ion. In this way zinc forms zinc oxide and phenyl radical thus produced forms a bond with H radical

What is the action of Zn dust on phenol?

Hint: Zinc dust acts as a reducing agent. Phenol undergoes reduction reaction in presence of zinc dust. Reduction reaction means the addition of electrons or removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.

What happens when phenol is oxidised by na2cr2o7 h2so4?

The acidified solution means that there is presence of an acid like sulphuric acid. Now, in the reaction we can see the product formed is benzoquinone, that is a conjugated diketone. In the last we can say that when phenol is oxidised to sodium dichromate in acidified solution, it will form benzoquinone.

What happens when phenol reacts with chromic acid?

Phenol is oxidized to 1,4-benzoquinone with chromic acid in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid. The mechanism is as follows: In the first step, Deprotonation of phenol leads to phenoxide ion which is transformed into a phenoxy radical by a one-electron oxidation

What is the formula of chromic acid?

H2CrO4

Can ethers be oxidised?

The oxygen atom must be bonded to a hydrogen atom so that a chromate ester intermediate (or other suitable leaving group) may be formed. Ethers (R–O–R) cannot be oxidized in this fashion.

Why do phenols react differently from alcohols?

An alcohol can be defined as an organic chemical compound whose molecules contain at least one hydroxyl group. These hydroxyl groups must be attached to carbon atoms. Moreover, in phenols, the hydroxyl group is directly bonded to the aromatic ring and not the carbon atom.

What is the general formula of alcohol and phenol?

A tertiary (3°) alcohol is one in which the carbon atom (in red) with the OH group is attached to three other carbon atoms (in blue). Its general formula is R 3COH….Classification of Alcohols.

Condensed Structural Formula CH 3CH 2CH 2OH
Class of Alcohol primary
Common Name propyl alcohol
IUPAC Name 1-propanol

Can phenol react with alcohol?

Alkylation of phenols by alcohols gave a mixture of 0- and C-alkylated products under the same reaction conditions. 0-alkylation and C-alkylation are parallel reactions. However, thoria-catalyzed formation of aralkyl ethers by alkylation of phenol with alcohols such as methanol (5) and ethanol (6) is known.

Are phenols more polar than alcohols?

Phenol is more polar than ethanol. The O-H bond in phenol is more polar than the O-H bond in ethanol. Due to this resonance, the polarity of the O-H bond increases. Moreover, in ethanol, O is attached to C2H5 group which shows +I effect as release electrons towards O thereby decreasing its polarity