What are the 4 components of DNA?
To form a strand of DNA, nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups alternating. The four types of nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
How are the 4 kinds of DNA nucleotides different from each other?
Nucleotides in DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases: Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine. Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine each have a single six-member ring. Purines: Guanine and Adenine each have a double ring made up of a five-atom ring attached by one side to a six-atom ring.
What do all 4 types of nucleotides have in common?
All nucleotides have a common structure: a phosphate group linked by a phosphoester bond to a pentose (a five-carbon sugar molecule) that in turn is linked to an organic base (Figure 4-1a). In RNA, the pentose is ribose; in DNA, it is deoxyribose (Figure 4-1b).
What three parts do all nucleotides have in common?
A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. RNA contains uracil, instead of thymine. A nucleotide within a chain makes up the genetic material of all known living things.
What three parts do all nucleotides in DNA have in common?
In turn, each nucleotide is itself made up of three primary components: a nitrogen-containing region known as a nitrogenous base, a carbon-based sugar molecule called deoxyribose, and a phosphorus-containing region known as a phosphate group attached to the sugar molecule (Figure 1).
Can you tell age from pee?
TUESDAY, Feb. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) — A simple urine test apparently can reveal how old your body really is — showing its biological, not chronological age. That information can then help determine your risk for age-related diseases and even death, a new study suggests.
Can you identify someone with urine?
At a crime scene, urine may be used to identify the perpetrator of a crime, or to place a victim at a particular site. In a laboratory, DNA analysis may be needed to positively identify an individual as the submitter of a particular urine sample, especially in the case of contested positive sample.
Can they watch you pee for a drug test for a job?
Is that legal? Usually not. Some courts have found it to be an unfair invasion of privacy to watch employees urinate. However, most courts have held that it is reasonable to enforce other safeguards that protect against tampering with urine specimens.
Does urine expire?
Do not keep it for longer than 24 hours. The bacteria in the urine sample can multiply if it is not kept in a fridge. If this happens, it could affect the test results.
Does urine have ammonia in it?
What is Urine? Dr. Kaaki says urine is made of mostly water, but it also has salt (sodium, potassium and chloride), uric acid and urea. Uric acid is a natural waste product from food digestion and urea is a waste product made of ammonia and carbon dioxide—all substances the body tries to get rid of through urine.
Why does my pee stink?
When you’re dehydrated and your pee gets very concentrated, it can smell like ammonia. If you catch a whiff of something really strong before you flush, it might also be a sign of a UTI, diabetes, a bladder infection, or metabolic diseases. Go to the doctor.
What does protein in urine look like?
When your kidney damage gets worse and large amounts of protein escape through your urine, you may notice the following symptoms: Foamy, frothy or bubbly-looking urine when you use the toilet. Swelling in your hands, feet, abdomen or face.
What is floating in my urine?
If you notice white particles in your urine, it’s likely from genital discharge or a problem in your urinary tract, such as kidney stones or possible infection. If you have significant symptoms that accompany the white particles in your urine, you may want to see your doctor.