The system of medical secondary vocational education (medizinische Berufsausbildung) prepares specialists in four areas: nurses for doctors (Arzthelferin), nurses for hospitals (Krankenschwester), nurses for nursing homes and houses for caring for seriously ill people (Krankenpflegerin), as well as medical personnel for physiotherapy and massage praxis. I will talk about how the first group functions.
Upon completion of training at the girls’ school, and medical secondary vocational education is received, as a rule, by girls, they send their resumes together with their certificates and other documents on practicing doctors. At selection of pupils doctors pay attention first of all to social competencies: friendliness, ability to have people to themselves, optimism, vigor, hard work. In addition, an important role is played by the appearance, the ability to present yourself and keep. View (and in Germany there is an incomplete secondary education (Hauptschulabschluss), a complete secondary education (Realschulabschluss or Fachabitur) and finally a gymnasium certificate (Abitur)) and grades of the certificate play a secondary role. The fact is that good grades do not mean good knowledge, and diligence. Among the owners of good grades, choosing secondary medical education, there are often amateurs to land: almost every other day they do not go to work, referring to health problems. Therefore, doctors often accept children with a simple average, and sometimes with an incomplete secondary education. Another reason is the reduction in the number of young people seeking to obtain medical secondary vocational education.
Firstly, due to the reduction and aging of the population, the number of young people decreases. Secondly, the decline in the popularity of these professions. Thirdly, it is difficult, and at times connected with the risk to health, work. For example, nurses in dentists (Zahnarzthelferin) often have to work in a bent and / or tilted in one direction or another. In addition, they are constantly on their feet. Moreover, work with all sorts of chemistry. Plus constant work with X-ray. Plus, not all patients put doctors in notice of the presence of such serious chronic diseases as AIDS, hepatitis, tuberculosis and other harmful contagion. How dangerous working conditions are said by the fact that if a girl studying for a dentist’s nurse, or already working as a nurse, becomes pregnant, then she immediately goes on maternity leave while maintaining a full salary. In most occupations, the normal rule is to leave the decree from the seventh month of pregnancy.
After the doctor selects suitable candidates, he signs a training contract with them (Ausbildungsvertrag). He also signs a contract with this or that professional college (Berufsschule), in which his students will undergo theoretical training. The duration of training, as a rule, is three years. In the first year of study, theoretical classes are two days a week, and then only one day a week. The remaining days the student works in the praxis of his doctor. Of course, in the first year no one is allowed to go to patients. He looks after the work of a doctor and other nurses. Prepares medical instruments, X-rays, etc., performs secondary paper work. Washing floors, cleaning toilets, etc. pupils are not engaged. Since the second year, he is beginning to trust the performance of simple medical actions on patients. And further on increasing.
Practical part of the work the student learns himself with the help of existing nurses who explain and show what, how, when and why to do. Only a few of the doctors themselves teach their students. Therefore, the student needs the ability to grasp everything on the fly. He should also be able to learn independently, because assistance from the outside is limited.
The theory is taught in college. Most of the training time is given for professional subjects, although the children are taught general subjects: German, mathematics, physics, etc. The training material of professional subjects is imprisoned for practical use and closely related to the requirements of real life. However, the quality of the teaching staff varies very much from college to college, and within one college. Among the teachers there are many superficial specialists. Although knowledgeable people told me that now the situation with the quality of the teaching staff is gradually getting better. At the end of the course, the student surrenders a number of written examinations exclusively for professional subjects (nursing papers, anatomy, traumatology, etc.). No graduation papers or diploma projects are being done.
There are no stable groups among students of colleges. The people meet once or twice a week in class, and then again run up. Everyone goes his or her own way in life.
During all three years of study, the student receives from the doctor student money (Ausbildungsvergütung). I must say that the size of the student is typical for Germany: 300-600 euros. If the student lives with his parents or relatives, then this money must be enough for a living. If he lives alone, then in this case the situation is more complicated. However, a guy / girl can write an application to the employment service (Arbeitsamt) for a surcharge on the part of the state / land (Berufsausbildungsbeihilfe). The size of the co-payment depends on many factors: the total income of the parents, the student’s expenses, the local land laws, etc. So, the ceiling of the surcharge in each individual land is different. At the end of the training the doctor may, but not necessarily, keep the student. In this case, the former student is not obliged to return the money spent for his training. What happens if the student himself wants to leave? I do not know. It is difficult for me to imagine such a situation, because for a young specialist it is very important right after the training to enter into the working life.