In which phase would you expect to observe the most endospores in a bacillus cell culture?

In which phase would you expect to observe the most endospores in a bacillus cell culture?

death phase

What happens in the lag phase of bacterial growth?

During lag phase, bacteria adapt themselves to growth conditions. It is the period where the individual bacteria are maturing and not yet able to divide. During the lag phase of the bacterial growth cycle, synthesis of RNA, enzymes and other molecules occurs.

In which growth phase is a bacteria most sensitive to an antibiotic?

log phase

Which phase is maximum growth?

Maximum growth takes place during exponential or log phase.

What are the 3 phases of growth?

There are three phases of growth – meristematic, elongation and maturation.

What is grand period of growth?

: the time during which a cell, organ, or organism is developing especially : that period of development characterized by rapid increase in size.

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What are the important characteristics of plant growth?

Characteristics Of Plant Growth

  • Plant Growth Is Indeterminate. Plants have the unique ability to grow indefinitely throughout their life due to the presence of ‘meristems’ in their body.
  • Plant Growth Is Measurable.
  • Meristematic Phase.
  • Elongation Phase.
  • Maturation Phase.
  • Arithmetic Growth.
  • Geometric Growth.

What is Generation time in bacterial growth?

Generation time is the time it takes for a population of bacteria to double in number. For many bacteria the generation time ranges from minutes to hours. Because of binary fission, bacteria increase their numbers by geometric progression whereby their population doubles every generation time.

What are the four phases of bacterial growth?

Bacterial colonies progress through four phases of growth: the lag phase, the log phase, the stationary phase, and the death phase. The generation time, which varies among bacteria, is controlled by many environmental conditions and by the nature of the bacterial species.

How can we avoid lag phase?

In bacterial physiology, lag phase is defined as the phase which is necessary for adaption of cells to new environment. During this phase the bacteria grow and the size increases; but the population density is almost constant. In textbook, it is recommended to have at least 5% of inoculum to decrease the lag phase.

What are the four causes of bacterial multiplication?

Most bacteria grow best within certain ranges of temperature, and have specific requirements related to their need for air, the proper amount of water, acid and salt. By controlling nutrients, water, temperature and time, air, acidity, and salt, you can eliminate, control, or reduce the rate at which bacteria grow.

Why does bacteria grow better in the dark?

In the light, both strains of bacteria take in more organic carbon, including sugars, metabolize them faster. In the dark, those functions are reduced, and the bacteria increase protein production and repair, making and fixing the machinery needed to grow and divide.

What is the best temperature for bacteria to grow?

Bacteria grow most rapidly in the range of temperatures between 40 °F and 140 °F, doubling in number in as little as 20 minutes. This range of temperatures is often called the “Danger Zone.” To learn more about the “Danger Zone” visit the Food Safety and Inspection Service fact sheet titled Danger Zone.

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What are the six conditions in which bacteria can sustain growth?

FAT TOM is a mnemonic device used in the food service industry to describe the six favorable conditions required for the growth of foodborne pathogens. It is an acronym for food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen and moisture.

What is a high-risk food?

Foods that are ready to eat, foods that don’t need any further cooking, and foods that provide a place for bacteria to live, grow and thrive are described as high-risk foods. Examples of high-risk foods include: cooked meat and fish. gravy, stock, sauces and soup. shellfish.

What Two Fat Tom conditions are the easiest to control?

What two FAT TOM conditions are the easiest for a operation to control? Time and temperature. To control time, limit how long TCS food spends in the temperature danger zone. To control temperature, keep TCS food out of the temperature danger zone.

Which bacteria does not need oxygen to grow?

Bacteria that grow only in the absence of oxygen, such as Clostridium, Bacteroides, and the methane-producing archaea (methanogens), are called obligate anaerobes because their energy-generating metabolic processes are not coupled with the consumption of oxygen.

Who is most at risk of contaminating food?

People With a Higher Risk of Food Poisoning

  • Adults Aged 65 and Older.
  • Children Younger Than 5 Years.
  • People with Weakened Immune Systems.
  • Pregnant women are more likely than other people to get sick from certain germs.

What water activity level is suitable for bacterial growth?


At what pH does bacteria die?

Most of them stop growing at a pH of 5.0. Some microorganisms can go as low as 4.6 and even down to 4.4. Historically, a pH of 4.6 was considered to be the lower growth limit, but portions of the food code were changed when it was discovered that some problematic microbes can grow in pH levels as low as 4.2.

Does bacteria grow better in acid or alkaline?

Upper and Lower pH Values Most bacteria grow best around neutral pH values (6.5 – 7.0), but some thrive in very acid conditions and some can even tolerate a pH as low as 1.0. Such acid loving microbes are called acidophiles.

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Can water activity be greater than 1?

Yes, activity coefficient can be greater than unity when there is a positive deviation from ideal behavior. For the phase separating mixture, the activity coefficient is greater than unity.

What is the difference between water activity and water content?

Moisture content defines the amount of water in your food and ingredients, but water activity explains how the water in your food will react with microorganisms. The higher the water activity, the faster microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and mold will be able to grow – resulting in higher standards of food storage.

Can activity coefficient be less than 1?

While activity coefficients are one or less for ions in aqueous solution, activity coefficients for some other species, such as dissolved gases, may be greater than one.

What water activity is possible?

The water activity scale extends from 0 (bone dry) to 1.0 (pure water) but most foods have a water activity level in the range of 0.2 for very dry foods to 0.99 for moist fresh foods. Water activity is in practice usually measured as equilibrium relative humidity (ERH).

What foods have a high water activity?

Most food has a water activity greater than 0.95 which supports the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould….Water Activity of Common Food Products.

Foods aw
jams, marmalades, jellies 0.75-0.80
peanut butter 0.70
dried fruits 0.60-0.65
dried spices, milk powder 0.20-0.60

How does salt affect water activity?

Salt is effective as a preservative because it reduces the water activity of foods. Salt’s ability to decrease water activity is thought to be due to the ability of sodium and chloride ions to associate with water molecules (Fennema, 1996; Potter and Hotchkiss, 1995).

How does freezing affect water activity?

Water activity (Aw) is a useful tool for monitoring product quality and safety for foods in the unfrozen state. Luckily, the frozen state drastically slows down most degradative reactions and hence provides similar controls to water activity in the unfrozen state. …