How is hypokalemia treated in DKA?
Replacement of potassium in intravenous fluids is the standard of care in treatment of DKA to prevent the potential consequences of hypokalemia including cardiac arrhythmias and respiratory failure.
Why is potassium replaced in DKA?
The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually, potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.
What causes Kussmaul breathing in DKA?
Kussmaul breathing is often caused by late-stage diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a metabolic condition caused by a lack of insulin and too much glucagon in the body. Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas that increases blood sugar.
How does DKA affect breathing?
Respiratory compensation for this acidotic condition results in Kussmaul respirations, ie, rapid, shallow breathing (sigh breathing) that, as the acidosis grows more severe, becomes slower, deeper, and labored (air hunger).
Is Kussmaul sign normal?
Pericardial Disease The Kussmaul sign is a usual finding, although not specific, and is defined as failing of decrease in venous pressure during inspiration.
What do muffled heart sounds indicate?
Muffled heart sounds are characterized by a decrease in the intensity of heart sounds. Muffled heart sounds occur when the pericardial space is filled with fluid. Causes of muffled heart sounds include pericardial effusion, pericarditis and cardiac tamponade.
What are the signs and symptoms of pericardial effusion?
What are the symptoms of pericardial effusion?
- Chest pain or discomfort.
- Enlargement of the veins of the neck.
- Fast breathing.
- Increased heart rate.
- Pain in the right upper abdomen.
- Shortness of breath.