How do temperature and salinity affect deep water currents?
A)They create density differences that cause dense deepwater currents to flow toward the equator where they displace less dense, warmer water above them. B)As temperatures and salinity levels of water increase, the water rises to the surface where it creates currents as it moves to colder regions.
What effect does salinity have on the movement of deep ocean currents?
As the seawater gets saltier, its density increases, and it starts to sink. Surface water is pulled in to replace the sinking water, which in turn eventually becomes cold and salty enough to sink. This initiates the deep-ocean currents driving the global conveyer belt.
What are the two main factors that affect deep ocean currents?
Winds, water density, and tides all drive ocean currents. Coastal and sea floor features influence their location, direction, and speed. Earth’s rotation results in the Coriolis effect which also influences ocean currents.
What is the main factor in moving deep water currents?
In contrast to wind-driven surface currents, deep-ocean currents are caused by differences in water density. The process that creates deep currents is called thermohaline circulation—“thermo” referring to temperature and “haline” to saltiness.
What 4 Things drive currents?
Four Factors That Create Ocean Currents
- Wind. Wind is the single biggest factor in the creation of surface currents.
- Water Density. Another major factor in the creation of currents is water density, caused by the amount of salt in a body of water, and its temperature.
- Ocean Bottom Topography.
- Coriolis Effect.
Why is ocean water always saline?
Ocean salt primarily comes from rocks on land. Rocks on land are the major source of salts dissolved in seawater. Rainwater that falls on land is slightly acidic, so it erodes rocks. This releases ions that are carried away to streams and rivers that eventually feed into the ocean.
What are the 2 types of ocean currents?
There are two type of Ocean Currents:
- Surface Currents–Surface Circulation.
- Deep Water Currents–Thermohaline Circulation.
- Primary Forces–start the water moving.
- The primary forces are:
- Secondary Forces–influence where the currents flow.
- Solar heating cause water to expand.
What is the strongest current in the ocean?
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
How fast do ocean currents move?
about 5.6 miles per hour
What are the three chief movements of ocean water?
Ocean water is constantly in motion: north-south, east-west, alongshore, and vertically. Seawater motions are the result of waves, tides, and currents (Figure below).
Why do ocean currents move in different directions?
The water at the ocean surface is moved primarily by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth’s spin and the Coriolis Effect. Gyres flow clockwise in Northern Hemisphere oceans and counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere oceans because of the Coriolis Effect. creating surface ocean currents.
What is another name for ocean currents?
n. El Nino, Peruvian Current, kuroshio, japan current, gulf stream, equatorial current, Humboldt Current, Kuroshio Current.
What causes ocean gyres?
Three forces cause the circulation of a gyre: global wind patterns, Earth’s rotation, and Earth’s landmasses. Wind drags on the ocean surface, causing water to move in the direction the wind is blowing. The Earth’s rotation deflects, or changes the direction of, these wind-driven currents.
What are surface currents?
Like air in the atmosphere, ocean water moves in currents. A current is a stream of moving water that flows through the ocean. Surface currents are caused mainly by winds but not daily winds. Surface currents are caused by the major wind belts.
Is water a current?
Water currents can be found in streams, rivers and oceans throughout the world. Water current is the rate of movement in the water, and ways to describe water current include its speed and direction.
What does current mean in water?
The term “current” describes the motion of the ocean. Oceanic currents describe the movement of water from one location to another. Currents are generally measured in meters per second or in knots (1 knot = 1.85 kilometers per hour or 1.15 miles per hour).
Which part of the river has the weakest water current?
Usually the speed of river water is fastest in the upper reaches. It becomes slower at the middle reaches and the slowest at the lower reaches. In the same place of the same river, the speed of the current also differs. Where a river runs straight, the current is faster in the center and slower near the riverbank.
Where is erosion greatest in a river?
Most river erosion happens nearer to the mouth of a river. On a river bend, the longest least sharp side has slower moving water. Here deposits build up. On the narrowest sharpest side of the bend, there is faster moving water so this side tends to erode away mostly.
What is the difference between rivers and streams?
A river is a natural flow of running water that follows a well-defined, permanent path, usually within a valley. A stream (also called a brook or a creek) is a natural flow of water that follows a more temporary path that is usually not in a valley.
Where is a river velocity the highest?
Stream velocity is greatest in midstream near the surface and is slowest along the stream bed and banks due to friction. Hydraulic radius (HR or just R) is the ratio of the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter.
What affects the velocity of a river?
The velocity of a river is determined by many factors, including the shape of its channel, the gradient of the slope that the river moves along, the volume of water that the river carries and the amount of friction caused by rough edges within the riverbed.
Which change would cause an increase in stream velocity?
-Friction slows down the water moving in a stream. So, anything that increases the friction (boulders, trees, etc.), decreases the stream velocity, and anything that decreases the friction, increases the stream velocity.
What three factors affect how fast a river flows?
What three factors affect how fast a river flows and how much sediment it can erode? A river’s slope, volume of flow, and the shape of its streambed.
What is the largest river on Earth?
What factors affect stream flow?
Mechanisms that cause changes in streamflow
- Runoff from rainfall and snowmelt.
- Evaporation from soil and surface-water bodies.
- Transpiration by vegetation.
- Ground-water discharge from aquifers.
- Ground-water recharge from surface-water bodies.
- Sedimentation of lakes and wetlands.
What increases the speed of a river?
The speed of a river varies from close to 0 m/s to 3.1 m/s (7 mph). Factors that affect the speed of a river include the slope gradient, the roughness of the channel, and tides. Rivers tend to flow from a higher elevation to a lower elevation. The gradient is the drop of the elevation of a river.