How do temperature and salinity affect deep water currents?

How do temperature and salinity affect deep water currents?

A)They create density differences that cause dense deepwater currents to flow toward the equator where they displace less dense, warmer water above them. B)As temperatures and salinity levels of water increase, the water rises to the surface where it creates currents as it moves to colder regions.

What is responsible for movement of deep ocean water?

Ocean currents are the continuous, predictable, directional movement of seawater driven by gravity, wind (Coriolis Effect), and water density. Ocean water moves in two directions: horizontally and vertically.

What is the relationship between the temperature and salinity of water?

The warmer the water, the more space it takes up, and the lower its density. When comparing two samples of water with the same salinity, or mass, the water sample with the higher temperature will have a greater volume, and it will therefore be less dense.

Do great white sharks live in Antarctica?

These species, which are frequently found in shallow water, would struggle crossing the deep ocean surrounding the southernmost continent. Thus, no sharks in Antarctica… yet. Antarctic seawater temperatures are on the rise, and with this rise comes new visitors.

What is the warmest temperature ever in Antarctica?

Dear Phil, Early last year, on February 6, 2020, the highest reading ever recorded for Antarctica was reached when the mercury peaked at a balmy 64.9 degrees at the Argentine Esperanza Base on the northern tip of the continent’s Trinity Peninsula.

Does it ever get hot in Antarctica?

The coasts and the Peninsula are much warmer. Mid-summer temperatures on the peninsula can reach 60 degrees F (nearly 15 degrees C), and the East Antarctic coast gets up to a whopping 32 degrees F (0 degrees C). Here’s the good news: Most Antarctic expeditions travel to the coastal regions and the Peninsula.

What is the coldest it has ever been in Antarctica?


How do temperature and salinity affect deep water currents?

A)They create density differences that cause dense deepwater currents to flow toward the equator where they displace less dense, warmer water above them. B)As temperatures and salinity levels of water increase, the water rises to the surface where it creates currents as it moves to colder regions.

What effect does salinity have on the movement of deep ocean currents?

As the seawater gets saltier, its density increases, and it starts to sink. Surface water is pulled in to replace the sinking water, which in turn eventually becomes cold and salty enough to sink. This initiates the deep-ocean currents driving the global conveyer belt.

What are the two main factors that affect deep ocean currents?

Winds, water density, and tides all drive ocean currents. Coastal and sea floor features influence their location, direction, and speed. Earth’s rotation results in the Coriolis effect which also influences ocean currents.

What is the main factor in moving deep water currents?

In contrast to wind-driven surface currents, deep-ocean currents are caused by differences in water density. The process that creates deep currents is called thermohaline circulation—“thermo” referring to temperature and “haline” to saltiness.

What 4 Things drive currents?

Four Factors That Create Ocean Currents

  • Wind. Wind is the single biggest factor in the creation of surface currents.
  • Water Density. Another major factor in the creation of currents is water density, caused by the amount of salt in a body of water, and its temperature.
  • Ocean Bottom Topography.
  • Coriolis Effect.

Why is ocean water always saline?

Ocean salt primarily comes from rocks on land. Rocks on land are the major source of salts dissolved in seawater. Rainwater that falls on land is slightly acidic, so it erodes rocks. This releases ions that are carried away to streams and rivers that eventually feed into the ocean.

What are the 2 types of ocean currents?

There are two type of Ocean Currents:

  • Surface Currents–Surface Circulation.
  • Deep Water Currents–Thermohaline Circulation.
  • Primary Forces–start the water moving.
  • The primary forces are:
  • Secondary Forces–influence where the currents flow.
  • Solar heating cause water to expand.

What is the strongest current in the ocean?

Antarctic Circumpolar Current

How fast do ocean currents move?

about 5.6 miles per hour

What are the three chief movements of ocean water?

Ocean water is constantly in motion: north-south, east-west, alongshore, and vertically. Seawater motions are the result of waves, tides, and currents (Figure below).

Why do ocean currents move in different directions?

The water at the ocean surface is moved primarily by winds that blow in certain patterns because of the Earth’s spin and the Coriolis Effect. Gyres flow clockwise in Northern Hemisphere oceans and counterclockwise in Southern Hemisphere oceans because of the Coriolis Effect. creating surface ocean currents.

What is another name for ocean currents?

n. El Nino, Peruvian Current, kuroshio, japan current, gulf stream, equatorial current, Humboldt Current, Kuroshio Current.

What causes ocean gyres?

Three forces cause the circulation of a gyre: global wind patterns, Earth’s rotation, and Earth’s landmasses. Wind drags on the ocean surface, causing water to move in the direction the wind is blowing. The Earth’s rotation deflects, or changes the direction of, these wind-driven currents.

What are surface currents?

Like air in the atmosphere, ocean water moves in currents. A current is a stream of moving water that flows through the ocean. Surface currents are caused mainly by winds but not daily winds. Surface currents are caused by the major wind belts.

Is water a current?

Water currents can be found in streams, rivers and oceans throughout the world. Water current is the rate of movement in the water, and ways to describe water current include its speed and direction.

What does current mean in water?

The term “current” describes the motion of the ocean. Oceanic currents describe the movement of water from one location to another. Currents are generally measured in meters per second or in knots (1 knot = 1.85 kilometers per hour or 1.15 miles per hour).

Which part of the river has the weakest water current?

Usually the speed of river water is fastest in the upper reaches. It becomes slower at the middle reaches and the slowest at the lower reaches. In the same place of the same river, the speed of the current also differs. Where a river runs straight, the current is faster in the center and slower near the riverbank.

Where is erosion greatest in a river?

Most river erosion happens nearer to the mouth of a river. On a river bend, the longest least sharp side has slower moving water. Here deposits build up. On the narrowest sharpest side of the bend, there is faster moving water so this side tends to erode away mostly.

What is the difference between rivers and streams?

A river is a natural flow of running water that follows a well-defined, permanent path, usually within a valley. A stream (also called a brook or a creek) is a natural flow of water that follows a more temporary path that is usually not in a valley.

Where is a river velocity the highest?

Stream velocity is greatest in midstream near the surface and is slowest along the stream bed and banks due to friction. Hydraulic radius (HR or just R) is the ratio of the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter.

What affects the velocity of a river?

The velocity of a river is determined by many factors, including the shape of its channel, the gradient of the slope that the river moves along, the volume of water that the river carries and the amount of friction caused by rough edges within the riverbed.

Which change would cause an increase in stream velocity?

-Friction slows down the water moving in a stream. So, anything that increases the friction (boulders, trees, etc.), decreases the stream velocity, and anything that decreases the friction, increases the stream velocity.

What three factors affect how fast a river flows?

What three factors affect how fast a river flows and how much sediment it can erode? A river’s slope, volume of flow, and the shape of its streambed.

What is the largest river on Earth?

Nile River

What factors affect stream flow?

Mechanisms that cause changes in streamflow

  • Runoff from rainfall and snowmelt.
  • Evaporation from soil and surface-water bodies.
  • Transpiration by vegetation.
  • Ground-water discharge from aquifers.
  • Ground-water recharge from surface-water bodies.
  • Sedimentation of lakes and wetlands.

What increases the speed of a river?

The speed of a river varies from close to 0 m/s to 3.1 m/s (7 mph). Factors that affect the speed of a river include the slope gradient, the roughness of the channel, and tides. Rivers tend to flow from a higher elevation to a lower elevation. The gradient is the drop of the elevation of a river.

How do temperature and salinity affect deep water currents?

A)They create density differences that cause dense deepwater currents to flow toward the equator where they displace less dense, warmer water above them. B)As temperatures and salinity levels of water increase, the water rises to the surface where it creates currents as it moves to colder regions.

What are surface currents driven by?

Surface currents in the ocean are driven by global wind systems that are fueled by energy from the sun. Patterns of surface currents are determined by wind direction, Coriolis forces from the Earth’s rotation, and the position of landforms that interact with the currents.

What directly influences Deepwater currents quizlet?

Deep current: Occurs deep in the ocean and is influence by water density, salinity, and temperature.

How do temperature and salinity differences cause vertical ocean currents?

Variations in water density are caused by variations in salinity (the amount of salt in water) and temperature. Denser water tends to sink, while less dense water tends to rise. Cold-water currents occur as the cold water at the poles sinks and slowly moves toward the equator.

What is the relationship of temperature to salinity?

Increases in temperatures of surrounding entities like ice and an increase in precipitation adds fresh water into the sea, which lower salinity. Seawater with lower salinity is lighter in density and won’t sink as much as denser water. This process changes ocean currents.

Does temperature or salinity affect density more?

As temperature increases, the space between water molecules increases—also known as density, which therefore decreases. If the temperature of water decreases its density increases, but only to a point. Evaporation increases salinity and density while the addition of freshwater decreases salinity and density.

What is true of density salinity and temperature?

What is true of density, salinity, and temperature? ​Water masses of the same density will not combine. ​Only one combination of temperature and salinity can yield a given density. ​Many combinations of temperature and salinity can yield the same density.

How is salinity calculated?

Water and soil salinity are measured by passing an electric current between the two electrodes of a salinity meter in a sample of soil or water. Salts increase the ability of a solution to conduct an electrical current, so a high EC value indicates a high salinity level.

What happens to density when temperature decreases?

When temperatures increase, objects expand and become larger and therefore the density decreases. When temperatures decrease, objects condense and become smaller so density increases.

Why does cold air or water tend to sink?

Explanation: When fluids (liquids and gases) are heated, they expand and therefore become less dense. When fluids are cooled, they contract and therefore become more dense. Any object or substance that is more dense than a fluid will sink in that fluid, so cold water sinks in warmer water.

Do molecules move faster in warmer substances?

When heat is added to a substance, the molecules and atoms vibrate faster. As atoms vibrate faster, the space between atoms increases. The motion and spacing of the particles determines the state of matter of the substance. The end result of increased molecular motion is that the object expands and takes up more space.

What happens when warm air rises?

The lighter warmer air mass begins to rise above the other cooler denser air mass. Warm fronts occur when light, warm air meets cold air. The warm air rises gradually over the cold air as they meet. As the warm air rises it cools and condenses to form clouds.

Why do hot air rises up?

As the molecules heat and move faster, they are moving apart. So air, like most other substances, expands when heated and contracts when cooled. Because there is more space between the molecules, the air is less dense than the surrounding matter and the hot air floats upward.

What is it called when warm air rises and cold air sinks?

This is called a convection current. Convection currents are defined as room air rising and cold air sinking by the Children’s Museum of Houston, on The main reason that hot air rises is because sinking cold air pushes it up.

What happens to warm moist air as it rises over the mountain?

If warm moist air rises, it will expand and cool. As it cools, the relative humidity will increase and water will condense. It can then fall back to the earth as precipitation. As air rises, it expands because there is less atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes.

What are two things that can force air to rise quickly?

Mechanisms that Force Air to Rise / Conditions for Cloud Formation

  • Surface heating and free convection.
  • Horizontal Convergence of surface air and/or Horizontal Divergence of air near the top of the troposphere.
  • Topography (mountains)
  • Uplift along weather fronts.

What is the advantage of staying in the leeward side of the mountain?

Leeward Mountain Slopes Encourage Warm, Dry Climates Opposite from the windward side is the lee side—the side sheltered from the prevailing wind.

Why does air heat up as it sinks down the leeward side of a mountain?

The orographic effect creates cooler air moving up the windward side of mountains and warmer air moving down the leeward side. Often, as the leeward air plunges down the slope, it warms quite dramatically and rapidly.

How do mountain barriers affect temperature?

When air reaches the mountains, it is forced to rise over this barrier. As the air moves up the windward side of a mountain, it cools, and the volume decreases. When the air descends the leeward side, it warms and is drier because the moisture in the air was wrung out during the ascent.

Which side of the mountain receives the most precipitation?

Much of airborne moisture falls as rain on the windward side of mountains. This often means that the land on the other side of the mountain (the leeward side) gets far less rain—an effect called a “rain shadow”—which often produces a desert.

Which side of the mountain is more often cloudy and which side is more often clear?

The Windward side of the mountain is more often cloudy, while the leetward side is more often clear.

Why does it rain on one side of the mountain?

As the air rises up over a mountain range, the air cools, water vapor condenses, and clouds form. On this side of the mountains, called the windward side, precipitation falls in the form of rain or snow. The windward side of a mountain range is moist and lush because of this precipitation.

What mountains cause the rain shadow?

In the continental United States, winds primarily come from the west over the Pacific Ocean. When that air reaches the Rocky Mountains, it creates a rain shadow over the leeward side of the mountains, which is part of the reason why it tends to be so dry in the mid-west.