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2021-05-14

How do P waves and S waves travel through the Earth?

How do P waves and S waves travel through the Earth?

The speed of P waves and S waves increases as they travel deeper into the Earth’s mantle . They travel through the Earth in curved paths, but they change direction suddenly when they pass through the boundary between substances in different states.

Where do P waves travel through?

In a P wave, the rock particles are alternately squished together and pulled apart (called compressions and dilatations), so P waves are also called compressional waves. These waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. P waves can travel through the liquid outer core.

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In what directions do the s/p and surface waves move?

P waves can travel through solids, liquids, and even gases. S waves shake the ground in a shearing, or crosswise, motion that is perpendicular to the direction of travel. These are the shake waves that move the ground up and down or from side to side.

What effects do P and S waves have at the surface?

Except in the most powerful earthquakes they generally do not cause much damage. P-waves shake the ground in the direction they are propagating, while S-waves shake perpendicularly or transverse to the direction of propagation (i.e. they displace material at right angles to their path).

What is difference between P and S waves?

Wave Speeds P waves travel faster than S waves, and are the first waves recorded by a seismograph in the event of a disturbance. The S waves are the second wave to reach a seismic station measuring a disturbance. The difference in arrival times helps geologists determine the location of the earthquake.

What do P and S waves stand for?

Compressional waves are also called P-Waves, (P stands for “primary”) because they are always the first to arrive. Shear waves propagate more slowly through the Earth than compressional waves and arrive second, hence their name S- or secondary waves. They were responsible for the second rumble.

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Why didn’t the P waves arrive in each city at the same time?

Answer Expert Verified Since each city has a different distance from the epicenter, the p-waves will arrive at different times.

What are the 4 types of seismic waves?

Seismic Wave Motions—4 waves animated

  • Body Waves – Primary (P) & Secondary (S) Waves.
  • Surface Waves – Rayleigh & Love Waves.

Which is more dangerous P or S waves?

S waves are more dangerous than P waves because they have greater amplitude and produce vertical and horizontal motion of the ground surface. The slowest waves, surface waves, arrive last. They travel only along the surface of the Earth. There are two types of surface waves: Love and Rayleigh waves.

What type of waves cause the most damage?

There are two types of body waves: P-waves travel fastest and through solids, liquids, and gases; S-waves only travel through solids. Surface waves are the slowest, but they do the most damage in an earthquake.

What is the most dangerous type of earthquake?

Love waves

Could an earthquake destroy the world?

By definition an earthquake cannot destroy the earth because an earthquake is the result of stresses in the crust.

Will California fall into the ocean?

No, California is not going to fall into the ocean. California is firmly planted on the top of the earth’s crust in a location where it spans two tectonic plates. There is nowhere for California to fall, however, Los Angeles and San Francisco will one day be adjacent to one another!

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How big of an earthquake would destroy the earth?

Magnitude Earthquake Effects Estimated Number Each Year
6.1 to 6.9 May cause a lot of damage in very populated areas. 100
7.0 to 7.9 Major earthquake. Serious damage. 20
8.0 or greater Great earthquake. Can totally destroy communities near the epicenter. One every 5 to 10 years

How long would a 9.0 earthquake last?

About 15 to 20 minutes

What’s the longest earthquake recorded?

Valdivia Earthquake

What state has the most earthquakes 2020?

Alaska

How do P waves and S waves travel through the Earth?

In P or compressional waves, the vibration of the rock is in the direction of propagation. P waves travel fastest and are the first to arrive from the earthquake. In S or shear waves, rock oscillates perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

What is the best description of the path of S waves and P waves?

What is the best description of the paths of S waves and P waves? S waves travel through solids or very dense, glassy liquids. P waves travel through solids, liquids, and gasses.

Can P and S waves travel through liquids?

P and S waves together are sometimes called body waves because they can travel through the body of the earth, and are not trapped near the surface. These waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. P waves can travel through the liquid outer core. An S wave is a different beast.

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Do S waves travel through the mantle?

S-waves cannot travel through liquids or gases. Because the earth’s mantle becomes more rigid as its depth below the asthenosphere increases, S-waves travel faster as they go deeper in the mantle….S-Waves.

S-waves travel through materials with rigidity and density
greater density slower S-waves

What is common to both P waves and S waves?

Answer: P-waves and S-waves are waves of the body that travel across the globe. On average, P-waves move 60% faster than S-waves, since the interior of the Earth does not respond to both of them in the same way. Compression waves that apply a force in the direction of propagation are P-waves.

Which earthquake waves Cannot pass through liquids?

S-waves cannot travel through liquids. When they reach the surface they cause horizontal shaking. Liquids don’t have any shear strength and so a shear wave cannot propagate through a liquid.

Which is more destructive P or S waves?

S waves are more dangerous than P waves because they have greater amplitude and produce vertical and horizontal motion of the ground surface. The slowest waves, surface waves, arrive last. They travel only along the surface of the Earth.

What is the reason why S waves Cannot pass through the core?

In fact, it is just a matter of rigidity: S-waves need a medium that is rigid enough for them to propagate. This is why S-waves cannot propagate through liquids.

What phase of matter solid liquid gas can S waves pass through?

Body waves travel through the body of a planet. Surface waves travel along the surface. There are two types of body waves: P-waves travel fastest and through solids, liquids, and gases; S-waves only travel through solids.

What is the slowest type of waves?

Surface waves

What materials can P waves travel through?

P waves can travel through solids, liquids and gases.

What happens to seismic waves as they pass through the molten rocks?

Seismic waves move more slowly through a liquid than a solid. Molten areas within the Earth slow down P waves and stop S waves because their shearing motion cannot be transmitted through a liquid. Partially molten areas may slow down the P waves and attenuate or weaken S waves.

Which waves can travel through all the three states?

There are two types of body waves: P-waves travel fastest and through solids, liquids, and gases; S-waves only travel through solids. Surface waves are the slowest, but they do the most damage in an earthquake.

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What happens to P waves and S waves at a depth of 2 500 km?

Table 1 Properties of P-waves and S-waves P-waves pass through both mantle and core, but are slowed and refracted at the mantle / core boundary at a depth of 2900 km. S-waves passing from the mantle to the core are absorbed because shear waves cannot be transmitted through liquids. The core has a radius of 3470 km.

Which of the two seismic waves move to travel the fastest?

These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves. The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave. This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to ‘arrive’ at a seismic station. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth.

How fast do P waves move in the crust?

Typical values for P wave velocity in earthquakes are in the range 5 to 8 km/s. The precise speed varies according to the region of the Earth’s interior, from less than 6 km/s in the Earth’s crust to 13.5 km/s in the lower mantle, and 11 km/s through the inner core.

What is the difference between S waves and P waves?

P waves travel at speeds between 1 and 14 km per second, while S waves travel significantly slower, between 1 and 8 km per second. The S waves are the second wave to reach a seismic station measuring a disturbance. The difference in arrival times helps geologists determine the location of the earthquake.

Why are there no P waves or S waves?

The shadow zone is the area of the earth from angular distances of 104 to 140 degrees from a given earthquake that does not receive any direct P waves. The shadow zone results from S waves being stopped entirely by the liquid core and P waves being bent (refracted) by the liquid core.

What are the two types of body wave?

Body waves are of two types: Primary waves (also called P-waves, or pressure waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves, or shear waves). P-waves are compression waves. They can propagate in solid or liquid material. S-waves are shear waves.

Are P and S waves Body waves?

A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth’s surface. P and S waves are body waves.

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Why do P waves show up before S waves?

P-waves travel 60% faster than S-waves on average because the interior of the Earth does not react the same way to both of them. As the interior of the Earth is almost incompressible, P-waves transmit their energy quite easily through the medium and thus travel quickly.

What are the 3 types of seismic wave?

There are three basic types of seismic waves – P-waves, S-waves and surface waves. P-waves and S-waves are sometimes collectively called body waves.

Which set of waves are the P waves?

A P wave, or compressional wave, is a seismic body wave that shakes the ground back and forth in the same direction and the opposite direction as the direction the wave is moving.

What does a normal P wave look like?

In a normal EKG, the P-wave precedes the QRS complex. It looks like a small bump upwards from the baseline. The amplitude is normally 0.05 to 0.25mV (0.5 to 2.5 small boxes). Normal duration is 0.06-0.11 seconds (1.5 to 2.75 small boxes).

What happens if there is no P wave?

Bifid P waves (known as P mitrale) indicate left-atrial abnormality – e.g. dilatation or hypertrophy. Absence of the P wave with a flat baseline may indicate: Fine atrial fibrillation. Sinoatrial arrest (with a secondary escape rhythm)

What are the two major types of seismic waves?

There are two broad classes of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves travel within the body of Earth. They include P, or primary, waves and S, or secondary, waves.

What are the differences between P waves S waves and surface waves quizlet?

What are the differences between P waves, S waves, and surface waves? P waves are the fastest and have the lowest amplitudes; S waves are the second fastest and have the second lowest amplitudes; surface waves are the slowest and have the highest amplitudes.

What do extra P waves mean?

Atrial tachycardia – a series of 3 or more consecutive atrial premature beats occurring at a frequency >100/min; usually due to abnormal focus within the atria and paroxysmal in nature, therefore appearance of P wave is altered in different ECG leads. This type of rhythm includes paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT).