How do intermolecular forces affect condensation?
All atoms and molecules will condense into a liquid or solid in which the attractive forces exceed the kinetic energy of the molecules, at sufficiently low temperature.
How can intermolecular forces help water vapor condense?
Intermolecular forces determine bulk properties, such as the melting points of solids and the boiling points of liquids. Liquids boil when the molecules have enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces that hold them together, thereby forming bubbles of vapor within the liquid.
What are the main forces that operate between non-polar molecules?
London dispersion forces: The intermolecular forces that occur between atoms and between nonpolar molecules as a result of the motion of electrons. Van der Waals forces: The weakest intermolecular force and consist of dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces .
Can nonpolar molecules have dipole-dipole interactions?
Dipole-dipole forces occur between molecules with permanent dipoles (i.e., polar molecules). For molecules of similar size and mass, the strength of these forces increases with increasing polarity. Polar molecules can also induce dipoles in nonpolar molecules, resulting in dipole-induced dipole forces.
Can a nonpolar molecule have a dipole moment?
As we know that in non-polar molecule, the whole molecule has zero dipole moment but bonds are polar. When two non-polar molecules comes closer to each other. The negative part (electrons) of one molecule attract the positive part (nucleus) of another molecule. As a result, two dipoles are induced.
What is non zero dipole moment?
water (H2O) has a oxygen atom at the top of a triangular structure while two hydrogen atoms take the place of the base sides. Here also the dipole bonds are equal in magnitude but not opposing each other. So, it has non-zero dipole moment.
Which has zero dipole moment examples?
Hence, carbon-chlorine and carbon-fluorine bonds are polar. The individual bond dipoles do not cancel each other. Hence, it is a polar molecule with non-zero dipole moment. Thus, the molecule with zero dipole moment is silicon tetrafluoride SiF4.
In which molecule dipole moment is non-zero?
On the other hand, SF4 has an unbalanced see-saw structure and has a non-zero dipole moment.
Does HBr have a hydrogen bond?
Cl, Br, and I are all so big that they form very poor bonds to hydrogen that is why HCl, HBr and HI are strong acids. Only F, O, and N are the right size and have a high enough electronegativity to form hydrogen bonds (to a hydrogen that is attached to one of these on another molecule).