How are communicable diseases transferred from one person to another?
A communicable disease is one that is spread from one person to another through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect.
What is a host in communicable disease?
After an infectious agent gets inside the body it has to multiply in order to cause the disease. In some hosts, infection leads to the disease developing, but in others it does not. Individuals who are likely to develop a communicable disease after exposure to the infectious agents are called susceptible hosts.
What are organisms that transfer disease from one host to another?
A vector is an animal that can transfer infectious pathogens from one host to another.
What are the characteristics of communicable diseases?
They can be caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, or fungi. When investigating communicable diseases, public health officials consider the following characteristics: Mode of transmission – how a disease is spread. Examples include food, saliva, solid particles contaminating surfaces, inhalation, insect (vector), etc.
What are the 5 modes of transmission?
The modes (means) of transmission are: Contact (direct and/or indirect), Droplet, Airborne, Vector and Common Vehicle. The portal of entry is the means by which the infectious microorganisms gains access into the new host. This can occur, for example, through ingestion, breathing, or skin puncture.
What is the number one mode of transmission?
Contact is the most frequent mode of transmission of health care associated infections and can be divided into: direct and indirect. An example of contact transmitted microorganisms is Noroviruses which are responsible for many gastrointestinal infections.
What are the 3 major portals of entry for disease?
An anatomic site through which pathogens can pass into host tissue is called a portal of entry. These are locations where the host cells are in direct contact with the external environment. Major portals of entry are identified in Figure 3 and include the skin, mucous membranes, and parenteral routes. Figure 3.
What are the methods of disease transmission?
Modes of transmission
- Direct. Direct contact. Droplet spread.
- Indirect. Airborne. Vehicleborne. Vectorborne (mechanical or biologic)
What are the common methods of transmission of disease?
Contact transmission is the most common form of transmitting diseases and virus. There are two types of contact transmission: direct and indirect. Direct contact transmission occurs when there is physical contact between an infected person and a susceptible person.
What are airborne diseases Class 9?
Airborne diseases are illnesses spread by tiny pathogens in the air. These can be bacteria, fungi, or viruses, but they are all transmitted through airborne contact. In most cases, an airborne disease is contracted when someone breathes in infected air.
What are acute diseases Class 9?
A few diseases occur suddenly and last for a few days. These are known as acute diseases, such as common cold. This condition can be treated with medical treatment or on its own. Many times, acute diseases turn chronic if they continue to persist.
What are some airborne viruses?
Types of Airborne Viruses
- Rhinoviruses3 (cause common cold symptoms, but are not the only viruses that cause colds)
- Influenza viruses (type A, type B, H1N1)
- Varicella viruses (cause chickenpox)
- Measles virus.
- Mumps virus.
- Hantavirus (a rare virus that can be transmitted from rodents to humans)4
- Viral meningitis.
Is the common cold an airborne virus?
“Some cold viruses are carried in airborne droplets from coughs and sneezes, but the most common cause of the common cold is most commonly spread with objects or hands contaminated by the nasal secretions by someone who is infected.
What illnesses require airborne precautions?
Airborne precautions are required to protect against airborne transmission of infectious agents. Diseases requiring airborne precautions include, but are not limited to: Measles, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Varicella (chickenpox), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
How do airborne diseases spread?
Airborne infections spread when bacteria or viruses travel on dust particles or small respiratory droplets that become aerosolized when an infected person sneezes or coughs. Healthy people can inhale the infectious droplets, or the droplets can land on their eyes, nose and mouth.
What is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease?
Preventing the Spread of Infectious Diseases
- Wash your hands often.
- Get vaccinated.
- Use antibiotics sensibly.
- Stay at home if you have signs and symptoms of an infection.
- Be smart about food preparation.
- Disinfect the ‘hot zones’ in your residence.
- Practice safer sex.
- Don’t share personal items.
What are the factors affecting transmission of water borne diseases?
Lack of clean water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are major causes for the spread of waterborne diseases in a community. The fecal–oral route is a disease transmission pathway for waterborne diseases. Poverty also increases the risk of communities to be affected by waterborne diseases.
Which disease is transmitted through infected food and water?
The pathogens of most interest to us are Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli, Listeria and Hepatitis A-all of which can be transmitted by food, water and/or dairy products. For more information about our foodborne illness investigation, foodborne disease epidemiology and consulting services please contact us.
How can waterborne disease be prevented from spreading?
Prevention of Food and Water Borne Illness
- Use good environmental management.
- Practice good personal hygiene.
- Take food safety precautions to learn about the fundamentals of food safety so that you can protect yourself, your friends, family and people in your community.
- Drink properly treated water.
What is the most common waterborne disease?
10 Common Waterborne Diseases and How to Prevent Them!
- Diarrhoea. In India, diarrhoea is the most common waterborne disease.
- Malarial fever. The plasmodium parasite mosquito is responsible for the spread of malaria.
- Amebiasis. Protozoa is the microorganism that causes amebiasis.
- Typhoid fever.
- Viral gastroenteritis.
Is jaundice a waterborne disease?
This condition is contracted through contact with contaminated soil or water as well as contact with the blood, urine, or other tissues of animals that have the disease. Yellow fever. This is a viral illness that is spread by mosquitoes, most commonly in parts of the world such as Africa and South America.
How can we prevent vector borne diseases Class 9?
Vector-Borne diseases can be prevented in the following ways:
- Vaccines should be developed for protection against disease-causing viruses.
- Insect repellants such as DEET or Permethrin can be applied to the skin and clothes respectively.
- Tick checks should be performed after exposure to dogs, cats, cattle, and mice.
How can we prevent vector borne infection?
Wear light-coloured, long-sleeved shirts and long trousers, tucked into socks or boots, and use insect repellent on exposed skin and clothing to protect yourself from being bitten by mosquitoes, sandflies or ticks. 3. install window screens in your home or workplace to keep mosquitoes outside. 4.
How can Vectors be controlled?
Insecticides, larvicides, rodenticides, Lethal ovitraps and repellents can be used to control vectors. For example, larvicides can be used in mosquito breeding zones; insecticides can be applied to house walls or bed nets, and use of personal repellents can reduce incidence of insect bites and thus infection.